Like the topic says...I need hard tack and flat bread recipes. Plus the Canadian version called Bannock. If anyone has actually eaten this type of bread I'd like some comments on texture and flavor.
I'll be experimenting with these recipes for a novel and for survival practice. Chuck Acker and Joe Schilling, if you are reading this, I suggest one of us teaches it next year at MAPS.
I'll be experimenting with these recipes for a novel and for survival practice. Chuck Acker and Joe Schilling, if you are reading this, I suggest one of us teaches it next year at MAPS.
Unsu...I know it's not hardtack but I came across this the other day while looking for meat info. I think I am going to give it a shot and I'll let you know how it goes.
Pemmican is the classic survival ration. It is really a paste of powdered jerky mixed with dried berries, nuts, and meted suet rolled up into balls. To make pemmican you must first make jerky and locate a source of fat for the suet. Beef or pork fat can be used, as other animals often do not have enough fat to use with their meat. Other fats, such as from vegetable sources, generally do not harden and are not recommended for use in pemmican.
The jerky for pemmican is made in the usual manner (that part will follow someday), but in thinner strips. The meat source used should be the best cuts available, stripped to be about one inch by 1/4 inch, and as long as possible. When properly prepared for pemmican, the jerky strips should be *very hard and brittle*, more brittle than needed for regular jerky. The strips are than pounded (clean rocks, a cleaned anvil and single jack, whatever) to powder the meat fibers, leaving the tendons, nerve fibers, etc, to feed to your animals.
The fat (or suet) used for pemmican is rendered (melted slowly without overheating) in a large kettle. The kettle is then taken from heat and allowed to cool. Then the fat is examined, and only the hardest, purest fat is put aside for use in the pemmican. The very soft fat can be fed to animals that are working, and/or used with wood ashes (preferably hardwood) to make soap.
Everything is then ready to make pemmican. You will need to make fist sized balls composed of 50% powdered meat (with a touch of salt added, if available, to stop salt craving), and 50% suet with a small amount of dry, powdered berries and/or nuts. The components are then thoroughly mixed (the suet can be softened with heat) and formed into fist-sized balls.
The pemmican balls must then be preserved and protected against moisture. This can be accomplished in a number of ways.
1. Wrapping the pemmican in waxed paper and dipping in wax. This is the easiest way, but may not be possible under primitive conditions.
2. Wrapping in cheesecloth, and dipping in suet. This is the "classical" method used by early expeditions to the west, the old U.S. Calvary, and mountain men.
3. Just dipping the balls of pemmican in melted suet. This is the least desirable method, but works.
4. Stuffing the pemmican into cleaned, washed intestinal material from the meat source animal, then dip in suet. This method works well, but is more time consuming than the others.
Pemmican prepared properly will last for many years and is a highly nutritious food source. It can be used in stews with tubers and corn meal added, cooked by itself, or eaten raw. If a mold forms on the pemmican ball, it is merely washed or scraped off, and the rest of the pemmican used. By itself, pemmican will keep people fit on long hikes or in other strenuous activity (because of the high fat content), and if used in conjunction with corn meal provides almost all of the nutritional needs required for continuous living and working. Only fresh greens need to be added to make a complete, well rounded meal!
We eat bannock on quite a regular basis. At our Pow-Wow it is served in many different ways. It's a heavier bread that is fried. It is served with moose chilli, stews of all types, hot with homemade jams and honeys, hot with butter etc, etc. One of my favorite ways is Indian Taco: Before dropping dough into hot oil, press flat with palms, so the bannock comes out kinda flat. Slice in half cover with spicey moose chilli, chopped lettuce, tomatoes, onions and sour cream. MMMMMM.
Here is a basic recipe:
1 tsp salt
3 cups flour
2 tablespoons baking powder
*Mix dry ingredients with half the flour. Add water until you have a thick paste, continue to add flour until you have a soft dough. Heat oil until very hot, drop pieces of dough into hot oil. Fry until golden on both sides. Place on paper towels to soak up excess oil.
1/2 mug flour
1 1/2 tablespoon baking powder
pinch of salt
pinch of sugar
mug of water
mix letting it froth up
pour into HOT oiled fry pan
flip when base is cooked
Adding anything from sliced fruit , nuts , seeds , etc to the mix will personalize to your taste . cinnamon works good too .
1 cup jerky
1 cup dried blueberries
1 cup unroasted sunflower seeds or crushed nuts
2 tlbs honey
1/4 cup peanut butter 1/2 tbls cayenne optional
grind meat into powder add berries , seeds/ nuts . heat honey , peanut butter and cayenne until softened , blend .
cool storage in plastic bags . I, ve keep this for around 8 months with good results .
I like the other recipes too . will try them .
Anyone ever try different flours with more nutrients in a flatbread recipe? I think I've seen recipes where you add lots of olive oil to the dough and then can bake it vs. frying if you wish. I guess this would be more like the Italian foccacia.
There's a pemmican recipe in the book, Nourishing Traditions, which is a must-have for backyard garden survivalists, IMO. It's in many libraries.
From The Old World Kitchen, by Elisabeth Luard pp 421-423
OATCAKES AND BANNOCKS (Scotland)
The Scots make a wide variety of oatcakes---no surprise since the main ingredient is the grain most compatible with the cold northerly climate. The original oatcake mix was a simple paste of milled oats worked with cold water. The fishermen of Skye used to dip a handful into seawater and then knead it into a cake for immediate consumption---the most portable of fast food. Even so, to many poor crofters, oatcakes ere food for special occasions---daily fare was barley cakes. The instruments for making rolled-out oatcakes were four in number: the spurtle, a flat stick for stirring the water into the oats; the bannock stick, a rolling pin with a crisscross pattern on it like that used in Norway for flatbread, which leaves indentations on the upper side of the cake; the spathe, a flat iron instrument like a palette knife used to flip the cakes onto the hot griddle; and the "banna-rack", used for toasting the oatcakes. Northern England preferred a batter oatcake.
The cooks of Yorkshire and Lancashire needed a deft hand to throw and scrape their preferred version, batter oatcakes. Their utensils were different as well: there was the riddleboard and throwing board and ungreased bake stone, requiring skills which could only be acquired through long apprenticeship, and a ready supply of unstabilized oats---very difficult to come by today. There are Scots oatcake recipes which are raised with yeast, and some which replace the water and fat with buttermilk and cream or with whey. Milk used alone makes them hard. The dough hardens so fast it is wise to make one batch at a time.
YIELD: Makes 1 large oatcake or 4 to 5 small ones
TIME: 40 minutes
1/4 lb oatmeal (fine or medium, *not* the rolled oats sold today to make porridge)
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 tablespoon melted fat (bacon drippings, lard or butter)
1/4 cup hot water
You will need a bowl, a rolling pin, and a griddle or a baking tray or a heavy iron frying pan (the nonstick variety is perfect). Put the oatmeal into a bowl with the salt, and pour the fat and hot water into a well in the center. Mix all the ingredients together as quickly and lightly as possible. You may need more or less liquid. Put the ball of dough on an oatmeal-dusted board, and knuckle it swiftly into a smooth, soft dough. Oatmeal is sticky and thoroughly unruly with a tendency to crack.
Roll the dough out very think---no more than 1/8 inch in thickness. You will need to dust frequently with extra meal to counter the stickiness, and keep pinching the cracked edges together to keep it whole. Cut the rolled-out dough into rounds---either make a large on by cutting around an inverted 6-inch diameter plate, leaving whole to make bannocks, or cutting 6 inch quarters to make farls. Or make small ones using a biscuit cutter or a fine-rimmed glass. Rub with oatmeal again and put them to bake on a hot ungreased iron griddle or heavy frying pan. Cook until you see the edges curl---this will only take a few minutes. Remove them and put them either in front of the fire or in a preheated 350 degree oven for a few moments to dry the tops.
Or roll the dough out into a square, again about 1/8 inch think, and put it on a baking sheet. Mark it into squares and prick it all over with a fork. Bake in a 350 degree oven until dry and crisp---this will take about ten to fifteen minutes.
Oatcakes are delicious with butter, with cheese, or with butter and marmalade for breakfast. Keep them in an airtight tin. They are best if you warm them again before serving. Oatcakes were often stored buried in the meal chest, where they kept sweet and dry until needed. Robert Burns, Scotland's favorite bard, considered them a delicate relish when eaten warm and washed down with a jug of ale. The west Highlanders liked them with fresh herrings, cold butter and a slice of raw onion.
1 cup whole wheat flour
1/2 cup white flour
1/2 cup rolled oats
2 tablespoon sugar
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons melted butter
1/3 cup raisins (optional)
3/4 cup water
Combine all dry ingredients; stir in butter and raisins well. Add water (more water if needed). Pat into a greased pie plate and bake at 400 degrees 20-25 minutes or until done. Knife test for doneness.
In my experience, this is a very nice, heavy not-too-sweet quick bread sort of thing that keeps like a rock and is quite tasty dunked in strong, hot tea with lemon, sugar and milk....or in fresh, cold goat milk. MMmmmm!!!
From The Old World Kitchen, by Elisabeth Luard, pp 419-421
FLATBREAD Flatbrød (Norway)
Probably the oldest and commonest form of bred in premodern Norway, this is a fine, paper-thin unleavened bread which used to be baked in the farmhouse kitchen only twice a year; it is so fine and dry and indestructible that it could remain fresh stored on a beam in the kitchen for six months at a time. There are still countrywomen around who make their own flatbrød. Since oats, rye and and barley are the cereals which can be successfully grown in the cold of northern Scandinavia, these are the grains which are used. The inclusion of wheat in this recipe makes the dough much easier to work. The wide round disks of flatbread are usually factory-baked today. For convenience they are often cut into neat rectangles and packaged in paper to be sold in supermarkets as "extra-thin crispbread".
Each farming household had its own special flatbrød mix, depending on the cereals it could produce. The following is a basic modern recipe.
YIELD: Makes 12 to 15 flatbreads
TIME: 1 hour
1/2 pound (1 3/4 cups) oat or barley flour
1/2 pound (1 3/4 cups) rye flour
1/2 pound (1 3/4 cups) wheat flour
1 teaspoon salt
2 cups skimmed milk
You will need a griddle or a heavy frying pan, or, best of all, a takke. Mix the different flours together with the salt. Pour the skimmed milk into a well in the middle, and knead into an elastic dough. Work it well to develop the gluten. Cut the dough into pieces and roll each one out, preferably with a specially grooved rolling pin, into the widest, thinnest sheets possible (you should aim to achieve a diameter of 18 inches).
Bake on an ungreased metal sheet (a takke) on top of your heat source until the flatbreads are quite crisp and dry. Store in an airtight tin. (in the cold, dry air of winter Norway this would not be necessary).
Thin flatbread was eaten crumbled into small pieces very much like corn-flakes, with fresh or soured milk or (for special occasions) cream poured over it.
A part of Christmas celebrations is mølje: flatbread crumbled into the broth from the boiling of the special Christmas meats.
In certain parts of Norway dry-baked flatbrød used to be (and still is in those places where the old traditions hold) the central ingredient of the harvest meal. Moistened to make it as pliable as a pancake, the bread is quartered, spread with fresh sweet butter, and used to wrap up tidbits such as dried mutton, slices of fresh, deep-orange-yolked, hard-cooked egg, a fine slice of the dark-brown sweet cheese, geitost, so beloved of the Norwegians, salted herring and finally a spoonful of cloudberry jam to round off the meal.
BREAD PANCAKE Lefse (Norway)
There are many local variations of this type of flatbrød. That of Norway is thicker, today raised with baking powder and sweetened, but the most traditional lefse has neither sugar nor baking powder, but is made from a grain flour and mashed boiled potatoes mixed with milk or water. It is made and stored like like flatbrød itself.
Alette Golden's cookbook (she ran a famous Norwegian cooking school) gives three recipes: equal quantities of oatmeal and rye and boiled mashed potato; equal quantities of barley, oat and rye flour, with equal quantities of boiled mashed potato; three parts of oatmeal to one part of rye.
Which ever mix you prefer, mash the potato as soon as it is cool enough to handle, and mix in most of the flour, with enough water to mix to a smooth dough. Leave the dough until the following day. Then roll it out into thin wide pancakes. Bake them on top of the stove on a lightly greased griddle. Store as for flatbrød.
When you wish to eat your lefse, sprinkle both sides with water, and sandwich it between clean linen cloths for an hour or so. Then it will be soft, and be buttered and folded and cut into neat pieces.
Lefse can be eaten as for the moistened flatbrød in the suggestions at the end of the recipe. It can also be layered into a cake with heavy sweet cream or sour cream and sugar.
This is what I have found:
from another group found this in the moosewood cookbook
1 cup whole wheat flour (you could use white flour, but ww is more
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 cup water
a tiny bit of oil for cooking
mix together the flour and the salt, add the water and stir til it
forms a dough. knead the dough for a minute or two, then separate into
six balls. roll each ball into a 1/8" thin round. heat a skillet (i
find that medium heat works well, but the cookbook doesn't specify) and
wipe it with an oiled paper towel. cook the flatbreads in the skillet
for 3-5 minutes each side or to your desired doneness. they should puff
makes 6 flatbread rounds.
With the exception of the Union Army, it would be unlikely for everyone in the United States to adhere to only one method of preparation, so I included several versions, including one specifically for the South.
The basic ingredients are: flour, salt and water (although quantity differs). General directions are also similar: Disolve salt in water and work into flour with your hands. Dough should be firm and pliable, but not sticky or too dry. Flatten onto a cookie sheet to about 1/4 inch thick, and cut into squares 3 inches by 3 inches. Pierce each square with 16 holes about ½ inch apart. Bake in oven until edges are brown or dough is hard.
Preheat oven to 400° F
For each cup of flour add 1 tsp. of salt
Mix salt and flour with just enough water to bind.
Bake 20-25 minutes.
The longer you bake the hardtack, the more authentic it will appear.
2 cups of flour
1 cup water
1 tbl spoon of Crisco or vegetable fat (lard)
6 pinches of salt
Bake for 30 minutes at 400 degrees.
Remove from oven, cut dough into 3-inch squares, and punch four rows of holes into the dough.
Turn dough over, return to the oven and bake another 30 minutes.
A Sailor's Diet!
Hardtack was cooked on shore and loaded on board by the barrel. This was the basic food of the sailor.
2 1/2 cups old-fashioned or quick oats.
3 cups unbleached flour.
1 1/2 teaspoons salt.
1 teaspoon baking soda.
In a separate container, mix:
1 1/2 cups buttermilk.
3 tablespoons honey.
1/2 cup melted bacon drippings or shortening.
Combine the two sets of ingredients.
When the dough is thoroughly mixed, roll it out on a floured board to a thickness of about a quarter inch.
Cut out circles of dough with a large drinking glass dipped in flour and put them on a lightly greased cookie sheet.
Bake for about 5 1/2 minutes at 450 degrees.
Let the hardtack cool on a wire rack before serving with jam or jelly.
Courtesy of the Texas Historical Commission
Or try a Southern johnnie cake...
2 cups of cornmeal
2/3 cup of milk
2 tablespoons vegetable oil (lard)
2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon of salt
Mix ingredients into a stiff batter and form eight biscuit-sized "dodgers".
Bake on a lightly greased sheet at 350 degrees for twenty to twenty five minutes or until brown.
Or spoon the batter into hot cooking oil in a frying pan over a low flame.
Optional: spread with a little butter or molasses, and you have a real southern treat!
Additional items that Union soldiers received were salt pork, fresh or salted beef, coffee, sugar, salt, vinegar, dried fruit and dried vegetables. If the meat was poorly preserved, the soldiers would refer to it as "salt horse". Sometimes they would receive fresh vegetables such as carrots and potatoes.
Confederate soldiers were not as fortunate. Their rations consisted of bacon and corn meal, tea, sugar or molasses, and fresh vegetables when they were available.
Courtesy of the National Park Service
I hope this helps and I did not repost something that was already posted.
yum yum! flatbreads are the best.
from Flatbreads and Flavors, by jeffrey alford and naomi duguid there are probably 70 different flatbreads from all over the world in this book. let me know if you're interested in others, i'd be happy to post more. :)
finnish rye hardtack (ruisleipa)
2 t dry yeast
2 c warm water
4- 4 1/2 c rye flour, plus extra for kneading and rolling
1 1/2 t salt
in a med size bread bowl, dissolve the yeast in the water. add 2 c rye flour and stir 50 times in the same direction. sprinkle on the salt and stir well. stir in 2 more cups flour, and turn out onto a lightly floured surface. knead 3-4 minutes, dusting with flour as needed. clean out and lightly oil the bread bowl. return the dough to the bowl, cover, and let rise for 1 1/2 hours. you can let it sit for longer, but the dough will become stickier and more difficult to work with.
preheat the oven to 425. oil and lightly flour 2 large baking sheets, at least 12 x 18 in.
punch down the dough. divide into 4 pieces. flatten each piece between floured palms, and let rest 2-3 minutes.
gently roll each piece of dough into a round approx. 8 in in diameter, or as large as your baking sheet will accomodate. add flour as nec. to prevent sticking. using a sharp knife, cut out a 2 in circular hole in the center of the bread. transfer the breads to the baking sheets, cover with damp towels or plastic, and let rise for 15- 20 mins.
using a fork, prick the tops of the breads at 1-2 in intervals. bake for 15 min. remove and cool on a rack.
while they are good fresh, these are traditionally made once or twice a year and strung on a cord or poles to dry out completely.
Unsu...I can't remember how many acorns it takes but you can make a flatbread/bannock from them. You have to shell, blanche, soak, rinse, dry roast and grind the acorns to make a flour. You can do the same thing with cattail roots, peel blanche, dry, grind. use both in place of flour or for half the flour in a recipe for a real traditional, even ancient flavor addition. I am not going to say you'll love it, But I know it will keep you alive.
I just made acorn pancakes yesterday and I love them! It is true you can use acorns, cattails and dock seeds ground to replace up to 1/2 the flour in any recipe. Of course you can use all wild plant flour, but they will not rise. Thanks for bringing this up...I am going to make acorn muffins later today!
Unsu...Roti are East Indian whole-wheat flatbreads that are simple and very tasty.
Mix 1 cup of whole wheat flour with 1 cup of cake flour, slowly add water so that it can be gathered together into a soft dough (usually takes just under a cup of water). Knead 7-8 minutes, make a ball, put it in a bowl and cover with a damp dishcloth. Let sit for half an hour. If the dough is too soft to form, flour your hands and knead until it holds. Divide into 12 balls, dust each with a little flour, cover and set aside. Heat a cast iron skillet on medium-low. Take a ball of dough and flatten it with your palms. Lightly dust both sides with flour. Roll it out to a 5-6 inch round. Once the skillet is hot, slap the round down and cook for 1 minute. Flip it and cook for about 30 seconds more. Then throw it under the broiler or over a gas flame for a few seconds to puff the roti. Eat hot, they don't keep well but they don't last long either.