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WITCH OR WICCAN?

topic posted Thu, November 30, 2006 - 4:14 PM by  Serena
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What's the difference anyway?
It seems at first glance that these two terms are really the same thing: referring to someone who practices witchcraft. Common mistake. A Wiccan is someone who follows the religion of Wicca. It's a spiritual path, that does happen to include the practice of magick. On the other hand, a witch is simply a person who does magick or witchcraft, regardless of their spiritual outlook.

You can be both a Wiccan and a witch, these two words are not the same
One of the biggest sore points among Wiccans is the improper usage of the terms "Wiccan" and "Witch". Too many people use the terms interchangably, presuming that they both mean the same thing. They do not.
Wiccan
Wicca is a religion, and someone who follows that religion is called a Wiccan. Sometimes it can be difficult to accurately define Wicca, and not all Wiccans will define themselves the same way. Observing the 8 Wiccan Sabbats, honoring the Gods and/or Goddesses, creating sacred space for rituals, to name a few. Many traditional Wiccans also feel that belonging to a coven is also a requirement and that those who practice their religion as a solitary, should not refer to themselves as Wiccan. Personally, I'm still not sure on that point. Typical Wiccans also practice magick, and therefore are also witches.

You cannot be a "natural Wiccan" any more than you could be a "natural Christian".
Witch
The practice of witchcraft is not associated with any religion, therefore you can be a witch and yet also be a member of any number of religions (or none). Using the natural energies within yourself, along with the energies of herbs, stones or other elements to make changes around you is considered witchcraft. Though the skills and gifts that are part of witchcraft can be inherited from parents or grandparents, you aren't automatically a witch just because your grandmother may have been one. The use of magick takes practice, experience and learning. On a side note, a male witch is called a witch, not a warlock.

Pagan
While I'm explaining terminology, I thought I would throw in "Pagan" as well. Paganism refers to a variety of non-Christian/Jewish/ Islamic religions that are usually polytheistic and are often nature-based. Wicca is only one Pagan religion, but there are others such as Santeria, Asatru, or Shamanism. Many people do not necessarily identify with a specific religion, and just use the broad term "Pagan" to define their spiritual path. Pagan religions are distinct and separate from each other, and it should not be assumed that they are just different names for the same faith.
posted by:
Serena
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  • Joining a Coven Is it necessary?
    Most people who discover Wicca become very concerned that they cannot find a coven to join. Though being part of a group can be very helpful when learning any new things, I don't consider it necessary. Reading books can teach you a great deal, and you can learn at your own pace. Some traditions in Wicca (Gardnerian, for example) require coven initiations because much of their teachings are only available in such a way. But solitary Wicca is becoming an acceptable path as well, and coven participation is not mandatory.

    This isn't about how to find a coven, or how to start one. Just simply some things to think about if you are considering joining one. Some traditionalists say that you must be initiated into a coven in order to call yourself "Wiccan", but I prefer to take a less-formal approach and let each person decide for themselves.

    Good Reasons to Join
    You're interested in a tradition such as Gardnerian or Alexandrian. The beliefs and rituals of both these traditions are passed down from one coven to the next and typically not shared with outsiders. In order to truly understand what they are all about, you must be properly initiated.

    You're looking to expand your horizons. There is certainly nothing wrong with doing ritual on your own, but it is a whole new experience doing ritual in a group. Being in a coven can teach you a lot about your own spirituality.

    You need some structure. Face it, some people just don't get anything done unless there is some external motivation. Being in a group can help you keep your studies and spiritual growth on track.

    You just like being part of a group. Group rituals raise more energy, and it can be lonely as a solitary.

    Poor Reasons to Join
    You feel you have to. Though some traditions to require coven membership, you can happily follow a Wiccan path without belonging to any group.

    You want to have fun. Well, covens most certainly have fun together, and some covens are less formal than others; but it is a serious commitment to join a group and you should take it seriously. If you just want a social experience, I suggest finding a moot in your area instead.

    You're only interested in scholarly study. Study and learning are a big part of coven life, but there is an emotional component as well. As time passes, most coven members grow together like a family. If you do not want that kind of bond, you may be better off finding just a study group or take some classes.
    Please note these are not hard and fast rules by any means. Just some things to think about.
    If you decide that joining a coven is right for you, make sure to do some research! Talk to people, ask lots of questions and go with your gut. If something seems 'off' about a group of people, then keep looking.

    If you are a solitary Wiccan, the idea of a coven may be a little intimidating. A little research can help you get more comfortable with the idea, especially if you are looking to work with others. Reading about covens can also help those already in a coven, to improve the organization of the group.

    Here are 4 top books on joining covens:

    1. The Witch's Coven
    By Edain Mccoy.
    A good introduction to the workings of a coven. This book can be helpful for any solitary interested in covens, or for anyone starting a coven.
    www.llewellyn.com/bookstore/book.php

    2. Covencraft: Witchcraft for Three or More
    By Amber K.
    Another excellent book to introduce you to the way a coven works. A little bit of research can go a long way when you are looking to start a group, or to join one.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    3. Wicca Covens: How to Start Your Own
    By Judy Harrow.
    This book is specifically written for those starting their own covens. It's written by a high priestess and outlines the various things that worked (or didn't work) for her when forming a coven.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    4. Witches Bible
    By Janet and Stewart Farrar.
    Though not a book specifically on covens, the material in the Witches Bible is written from a coveners perspective. You can learn alot about British Traditional covens from the Witches Bible
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php




    • What to put in your sacred space
      It's important to have a space in your home that you can use as a spiritual focus. Whether you call it an altar, shrine or temple, you should establish some spot for this purpose. The bottom line is that you can place anything you wish on your altar, there is no blueprint that you have to follow. There are some arrangements of tools and candles that are considered traditional, but you can be as creative as you wish. It is common to have items that represent the 4 elements, as well as representations of the God and/or Goddess. You can use this space when you do ritual, meditate or just a spot to hold your tools. Your sacred items need not be specially purchased for this task. Things from nature, or everyday household items can be used if they touch your spirit in some way.

      Your altar is the place where you hold rituals, and keep or display your ritual tools. It can be a coffee table, bookshelf, TV tray, computer desk, or any other flat surface. An unattractive table can be spruced up with a decorative cloth.

      Depending on your space or living arrangements, you may have to keep your altar small and portable. If you are unable to have a permanent altar because of friends or family members, you can just set it up and take it down whenever you need to. Using small items can make this easier. Or you can create an altar space that can camaflage as just a group of decorative items. Use your creativity.

      There will be things you keep on your altar all the time, but during the Sabbats, you can decorate with appropriate items. Your altar need not be a static display. Changing it throughout the year can reflect your own frame of mind as the seasons change.

      One thing to consider when setting up an altar, is the direction it faces. It is traditional to have your altar facing North, but if that is just not possible due to the size or arrangement of your living space, then you may need to place it elsewhere.

      If you choose to have items to represent the 4 elements, they are usually placed at their corresponding direction:

      Mine is set up this way:
      East - Air - Yellow Candle (incense, feathers, sage sticks, wand, pendelum, tarot and witch board)
      South- Fire - Red Candle (Cauldron, Athame, Knife, Sword, other candles, oil burner, green man candle.)
      West - Water - blue candle (Abalone Shell, Chalice, moon water, rain water, scrying bowl, scrying mirror)
      North - Earth - Green Candle (bowl of salt, pentacle, magickal stones, herbs, pewter, fall leaves and sticks for my yule fire, essential oils and home made blessing oils)

      Now, another person I know does it this way. She lives in California:
      Fire - South (athame, candles)
      Water - West (chalice, sea shells)
      Earth - North (pentacle, bowl of salt or earth)
      Air - East (incense, wand, feathers)

      This is very personal I find also. The one thing that stands tho is alter must face in the east or your MAGICKAL EAST. But I prefer the real east. so East is always in front of you and you are facing the alter and east. The way you set up your element candles seems to be different by where you live and what feels RIGHT to you. I have done it the way my friend does it and it did not feel right. It felt unbalanced to me. So I went back to my way again. So test it and try it out see what works best for you.

      Including images to represent the God and/or Goddess are also ideal, like statues or artwork. Sometimes extra candles are used to represent the Deities. Overall, the items you choose to have on your altar is up to you. I have Goddess candles, and God candles, I have my SELF candle along with 2 other large candles. I have my statues of Isis and Hecete. My Cauldron, my feathers are stuffed in a bowl full of large acorns of unknow origin that the Earth given to me on my nightly walk along with red cherries that are attached! They are in a bowl with my goddess candle in the middle of it all and the feathers are stuck in different postitions. It looks lovely! Fall leaves (well, what I can find in Florida lol) are scattered around along with twigs and sticks. My yule accessories are out my red alter cloth and orange for Samhain is still there too. my Yule essential oil, evergreen leaves are scattered about and a yule candle. I also have my own wand I found outside which was also a gift from the earth, it is amazing! a stick and wrapped all around it is oak moss strings and so I burned some amber and frankencense till liquidfied and put it on the end of my wand! It is so cool and powerful!

      Those following an eclectic path should feel free to create an altar that represents their own spirituality. If you are a member of a specific tradition, you may find that a certain altar layout is expected.

      Once your altar is in place, remember that it is a sacred place and should be treated with respect. Whether or not you let other people touch the items is up to you, but some people feel that other people will bring 'outside' energy to your tools. Keep your altar dusted and clean too.

      • Altar Tool Basics
        What are the tools you need, and how to use them

        Outfitting your altar with magickal tools is usually the first step before casting circles and doing rituals. There are so many tools and items, it can be a bit overwhelming to know which is which and what you need. First and foremost, you do not need any of these things. Magick comes from within and the tools only accentuate your own power. Tools can be purchased or made, whichever works better for you. You also don't need to get all of your tools at a specialty Wiccan store. I've gotten some wonderful items from garage sales and Goodwill.

        Athame
        It's pronounced a-THAW-may or ATH-amay, not A-THAME. The athame is a ritual knife or dagger, usually double-edged with a black handle. The knife represents Fire, but is never used to cut anything physical. An athame is often used to cast a circle. It's symbolic only and many suggest you dull the blade to prevent any accidents.

        Chalice
        Your chalice (or cup) represents Water. Altar chalices are typically a stemmed goblet style, but any cup, glass or mug will do. Your cup is used to hold the water or wine for drinking at the end of a ritual or circle.

        Wand
        Most people think of wands as long wooden branches with a big stone on the end. Your wand can be any material you feel drawn to (wood, metal, bone). Your wand is the tool of Air, and is used to direct energy during ritual. Wands tend to be the one tool that most Wiccans are likely to make themselves.

        Pentacle
        Your altar pentacle can be anything from a simple pendant, to a large table-top platen. The pentacle represents Earth, and you use it to cleanse or consecrate other items on your altar. Typical pentacles are metal, ceramic or carved from wood.

        Cauldron
        The cauldron represents Water, like the chalice. Most Wiccans don't actively use cauldrons but keep one for the symbolism and the sheer 'witchy-ness' of it. Cauldrons are cast iron pots, usually pot-bellied in style. If you cannot find a true cauldron, other bowls or pots may be used. Though it represents Water, many rituals also call for small fires to be burned in the cauldron. If you plan on doing this, make sure to have a cauldron that can take the heat.

        Bowl of Salt
        You can use a bowl of salt to represent the Earth, rather than an altar pentacle. Salt is used to cleanse other tools, crystals, jewelry or any item that may pick up negative energy. A small bowl of salt (coarse sea salt is best) is simply kept on the altar.

        Other Items
        Candles - Represent Fire, and some people keep a special pair of candles to represent the God and Goddess
        Bells - Used to mark points during a ritual
        Censer - For burning incense (Air)
        Sword - Just a longer version of the athame. Not very practical for the solitary Wiccan
        Boline - Curved knife for harvesting herbs, not really necessary for most people
        Incense, crystals, statuary - Not really tools, but handy and attractive things that many Wiccans like to display on their altars.

        You may never use all of these tools on a regular basis, but you may come across a spell or a ritual that you want to do that requires one. If you don't have a tool, you can always improvise, or keep your eyes open for your next magickal item.

        Keeping your sacred space under cover
        For some of us, it's just not practical or allowable to have an elaborate and permanent altar in our homes. If you are in the broom closet, then it's likely your altar needs to be too.
        A temporary altar
        Your sacred space need not be in a permanent location. If you have special items that you like to use for ritual, you can simply store them in a safe place out of sight. You can bring them out and set up your altar whenever and wherever you are able. You might even consider taking them outside to a secluded place if it's too awkward to do so at home.

        Hide in plain sight
        You'd be surprised how easy it is to have a permanent altar area without attracting any attention. You don't need to be overtly Pagan with the items you choose. A huge chalice with a pentacle engraved on it isn't the only way to represent Water.

        You could use seashells or a pretty flower vase instead. A feather could represent Air, and an interesting stone for Earth. I do love candles for Fire, and they are such common items that I doubt anyone would question them. A few carefully thought out knick-knacks can represent the elements as well as the God and Goddess, and nobody need be the wiser.
        Think vertically
        This is just another way to hide your altar in plain sight, one that works particularly well if you are short of space. Your altar doesn't need to be on a shelf or table top. Use the walls. Hang non-Pagan artwork that represents the things you would like to have on your altar. A bulletin board would also work, especially if you are living at school in a dorm room. You won't be able to use these 'items' like you would physical items on an altar, but images can be powerful reminders of your spiritual path.

        Don't forget: having an altar is important, but not a requirement. If you are always going to be stressing over having your items found or getting caught, your mind will never be clear enough for meaningful rituals anyway. Going without an altar altogether is always an option.

        **IN PHOTOS I WILL PUT IN SOME ALTER ARRANGMENTS TO CHECK OUT!
  • Where do all the neat names come from?
    I hear this question very frequently. Everyone who wants to be Wiccan is anxious to get themselves a shiny new magickal name. First of all, you don't have to have a special name to be Wiccan. Secondly, don't expect a Goddess-given name to drop out of the sky. Though sometimes a name will jump out at you, more often than not, you will have to choose the name yourself. It can take time, research and a lot of thought. Your magickal name should reflect who you are, or who you are trying to become. Please don't choose something just because it sounds all magickal-like. If you belong to a circle or coven, your High Priestess may give you a name when you are initiated, but not all covens operate this way. Your name is a personal choice.

    Choosing My Magickal Name Written by Terri

    Here is my own experience selecting a name for myself

    I recently decided to find my magickal name. It’s common for pagans to take a second name, especially those who work in a coven or any kind of magickal group. I am just a solitary, but since I own a shop and have a bit of an Internet presence, I felt a need to identify myself.

    My first exploration into having an ‘alternate identity’ began many years ago. I was into the BBS scene and liked to chat (Bulletin Board Systems were sort of a pre-internet). My very first online name was Nightmare. No particular reason why, but it stuck and it felt comfortable. I would probably still be using the name today if it weren’t for a small incident a few years ago. I switched ISPs and I had to pick a new login name. But it had to be 8 characters or less. That eliminated Nightmare.

    I was desperate for a new name so I could start my new ISP account, so I chose the name of one of my cats. Charlie didn’t seem quite right, so I went with Spook. I have been known as Spook now for many years, but it always felt temporary. It was an Internet name, but not a name that reflected who I was in a spiritual sense.

    A few months ago, I decided it was time for a new name. I had always hoped the right name would somehow miraculously manifest itself. Nothing happened, so I had to start looking.

    A favoured way to find your name is by meditation. Allowing your inner consciousness to bring a name to you. This method wouldn’t work for me because my hectic lifestyle doesn’t allow for much meditation time. Another way of finding your name is choosing elements that represent the kind of person you are, or perhaps the person you’d like to be. This allows for your creativity to take charge.

    I didn’t want a ‘typical’ name with Silver or Moon in it. Everything I thought of seemed cliched or over-done. In desperation, I tried several variations of Spook. My favorite was Spookabella, Hag of the Under-realms. Certainly unique, but it still didn’t suit me. Perhaps when I've entered my crone-time. I also tried Spelf, being short of Spook-Elf. Nope.

    I borrowed a great book (“Complete Book of Magical Names” by Phoenix McFarland) and hoped it would have some answers. Besides discussing all the reasons for taking a name, and different methods for finding one, there are all sorts of great lists to choose from. Lists of various deity names from different cultures, names from mythology and literature. Along with meanings, it gave me much to think about.

    After some reading, I began to despair that nothing would suit me. And then, kablam. One name spoke to me.


    “Pythia - Serpent goddess, feminine mystery”I mulled over the name for a while, then searched the Internet to see what else I could find. I was pleasantly surprised to find more on Pythia. She was the priestess and prophetess at the Oracle of Delphi. That sealed the deal for me. (It's pronounced pie-THEE-a).

    When choosing your name, don’t allow yourself to be limited by convention. Trees, stones, animals, colours, planets and even herbs all offer ideas that you can use. There is no right or wrong name, nor any right or wrong way to find it.

    I will also share how I got my magickal name (Serena) and I think it is a very good idea if my brothers and sisters who has taken on a name for themselves to also share with the others who have not selected a name yet. I would love to find out how you came to vision for your name, if the name spoke to you, or what???? When I am done posting, I will write my own story here and I want to see others also!!!

    Do I have to choose a magickal name?
    While is it somewhat customary for someone who is Wiccan or Pagan to select a second name for themselves, it's by no means necessary. Many people practice Wicca for decades and never feel the need to identify themselves any other way besides their legal names. We choose our magickal names for a variety of reasons. Mainly, as a way to separate our spiritual selves from our everyday selves. In this modern age of the Internet, a lot of Pagans use their magickal names as their online identity in order to remain anonymous. Some people have a third name to use on the Internet, while keeping their personal magickal name more private.
    If you do decide to select a second name for yourself, the only limits are your own imagination. Gods, Goddesses, animals, astrology, herbs, stones and even fictional characters are all sources of inspiraion when creating your name. You could create a name that represents who you are, or who you are trying to become. It's up to you.

    Here are some links that might help...

    Beyond Jennifer, Jason, Madison & Montana
    This baby name book by Pamela Redmond Satran, Linda Rosenkrantz is one of my favorites. Not only does it go beyond your typical baby naming book, it's got some great stories and awesome lists. Why pour through 200,000 when you don't have to? The humor and wit kept my husband and reading, even after we found some name ideas.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    Puffy, Xena, Quentin, Uma
    Joal Ryan wrote this hip baby name book. Are you looking for something flashy and fun? This baby name book has names from stars (both celestial and Hollywood) and tips on giving your baby a less than usual name, including dealing with the birth certificate registrar who stares at you like you're mad for choosing that name.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    Bible Names for Your Baby
    Joy and Paul Gardner give you a biblical tour of names from both the old and new testaments. The history and the backgrounds and common usages of the names. A definite must for the person who is leaning towards a biblical name. It includes names that you won't find in other books.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    Baby Names Now
    Pamela Redmond Satran and Linda Rosenkrantz also wrote this book on names. While it is very different from their first book of names, it is still a fun read. Again, the humor and sarcasm are so wonderfully refreshing. There are fewer names in this book, but more running, hilarious, commentaries. Perhaps it's supposed to be serious, but it really does make you look at names you choose.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    O'Baby: The Irish Baby Names Book
    Looking for a book of Irish baby names? Look no further than Geoffrey Johnson's complete guide to naming your baby with lots of great Irish names.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    Saint's Names for Your Baby
    Fiona MacMath offers you a complete listing of Saint names for your baby, including history, definition or more.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    The African-American Baby Name Book
    Teresa Norman has compiled more than 10,000 names from African and Muslim heritages. It includes the origin and meanings of the names and suggestions on choosing a name for your baby.
    about.pricegrabber.com/search...rod.php

    Welcome to the Magickal Name Generator

    Need a spiritual name to capture the inner you but can't quite find the right one? Well, let the computer do it for you. Just select the element that you are most closely attuned to, and click the button.

    This little tool will create a 2-part magickal name, sort of a first name and last name.
    Don't like the combination? Just click again.

    Be warned, they are a little on the 'poetic' side and female-oriented. I hope to improve the tool soon to include a male/female selection.
    paganwiccan.about.com/library...egen.htm





  • Do you need to tell ?
    This can be a tough issue for anyone who is new to a Pagan path. Since there is so much misunderstanding about our way of belief and thinking, it can be difficult to make others understand what you've embarked upon. No one can decide for you whether you should remain 'in the closet' or not. Don't feel that you must make announcements. Your religious views are private and are not something that needs to be made public. Surely the Gods wouldn't want you to suffer discrimination or hostility on account of them. I would recommend against announcing your beliefs just for the shock value.

    How I Came Out of the Broom Closet
    Coming out on television is not ideal.

    Coming out of the broom closet, is a slang expression for letting the people around you know that you are Wiccan or Pagan. Depending on one's family and friends, you may not be able to just announce your faith whenever you please. Some people never leave their closets, and some only peek out occassionally. I thought I would share my own story with you.

    I owned my own Wiccan store, and was asked to come on TV during our local morning show to promote my shop. I got to bring all kinds of nifty Wiccan and Pagan things to display, and I would be interviewed. I was so excited, I told everyone I knew, including my parents.

    Now, I had been Wiccan for many years, but had never mentioned it to my parents. My friends knew, and the people I worked with did too. Only my folks were out of the loop. For a New Year's resolution, I decided to hide it no longer. I began to wear my pentacle outside my shirt for all to see, even when visiting my parents. I didn't actually bring up the subject, as I thought the big silver pentacle would be enough.

    Under the impression that they knew, I had no concerns telling them about my TV spot. What I didn't know, is that they didn't know. I guess they didn't recognize the pentacle for what it was. Well, of course, they told their friends and other family members about my upcoming 5 minutes of fame.

    My interview went OK, despite my rampaging nerves. I'm sure my mother found the entire thing quite a shock. When I spoke to her that evening about it, she just said that I did fine. But next time I went to visit, she was asking me if I was in a cult. We ended up talking about it, and even now I'm not sure she is convinced. It must have been quite a shock, hearing all about me and my religious views on TV. I really should have been more responsible and talked about it, instead of assuming she knew.

    Thank you JLSparkle for sharing your story with us!

  • Circle is the magically prepared area where many Wiccans celebrate the turning of the Wheel. What I will discuss here is how I see Circle ... simply my viewpoint and in no way the final word. Remember that your own heart and spirit will guide you in things. If something sounds uncomfortable to you, then don't do it. Please! Don't let someone's supposed expertise/knowledge lead you into doing something that you are not sure about. No one can tell you how to worship or who to worship.
    Ok...the Circle is the area where I hold my rituals, where I worship my Gods, where I cast my spells. The first thing I do before Circle is to prepare myself through a salt-bathing ritual. This involves cleaning myself with soap and water...leaving the daily worries behind with my clothing worn that day. Then I join salt and water to charge myself, to cleanse myself. When I am ready to begin my Circle, I either robe or not, that is a matter of personal choice to me. Then I move to where I am doing
    my Circle...assuming that I am not doing it in my bathroom.

    I light the candles on my altar which I always place in the East. Put your altar wherever it feels the most right to you. These represent the Lady and her Lord. I set fire to my incense. I center and ground myself. If I am circling with another, we hold hands and do three Oms to bring our energies into balance. At this point I am going to walk you through casting a Circle. This is NOT the way I do a Circle privately, but it is the way I do it publicly. My way of doing it is oathbound and I may only reveal that to those who are properly prepared and known to me.

    First, call the Lady and the Lord to join you in your circle. Do this with reverence and respect. They are your Deities and should be invited never commanded! A simple Invocation to each follows:

    Lady of the Night, Mistress of the Day
    Please hear the call of your daughter/son (or simply your magical name) Silvery Moon Woman watch as I lay
    This Circle of Power .

    Great Hunter, Father, Son and Lover
    Hear my call if you will
    Laughing Man, Eternal Man watch over
    This Circle of Power.

    So, you have invited your Deities in. Take a moment to feel Their presence. Smile at the Lady's warmth...the Lord's being. These are your Deities and are indeed there for you. Once you know that They are attending your rite, you begin to cast the Circle. You first will cast the Circle with fire and air, elements of East and South. Incense is fire and air. Present the burning incense at the altar and then walk your Circle deosil. Deosil is the direction of the sun as it travels the Earth. When you return to the altar, replace the incense. NOTE: Use a hotpad if you are in danger of burning yourself! I have a small ceramic cauldron made by a Pagan potter, but I also use a large shell on occasion.

    Once the air and fire have cast the Circle, then join salt and water together. Again, with reverence! This is a religious ceremony you are doing so try to be respectful. The Goddess says in Her charge "all things in reverence and mirth" so if you giggle so be it....but do try to start with respect.

    Take the earth and water (salt and water) and present it over the altar. Now, traveling deosil, asperge your Circle with water and earth. Asperge is to lightly flick water from the bowl with your fingers and cast to the edges of your Circle. Return to the altar and replace the water bowl.

    Now, with your finger, your athame, your wand....cast your Circle with Spirit. That is you, your energy, your heart and spirit at work. You may say words as you go if you wish. A simple Circle invocation could go something like this:

    Be thou cast, Circle.
    As I walk thy boundaries
    So do you hold my power.
    Set me apart from the world of man
    Make me apart form the realm of spirit.
    Hold me between the worlds as I work my magic.
    You may see or feel energy coming from you as you walk the edge of your Circle. Or you may not! Don't worry about it. When you return to the altar, salute the East. Now, at this point you may call the Quarters if you wish. A simple Quarter call could be:

    Spirit and guardian of the (direction)
    I do call you to my Circle.
    Do thou watch from the (direction) and keep me safe.
    Witness my workings and lend me thy aid
    Thou guardian of the (direction)

    Do embellish on any of this as you see fit. This is just meant to help those of you who have never done a Circle and are unsure as to the actual mechanics of casting. Remember that you must follow your own path! Read! Ask questions! Learn and grow!

    Now then, I have tried to show you throughout this writing what Circle is to me. Hopefully you will be able to cast a Circle for yourself. What you do within the boundaries of your Sacred Space is up to you. I would hope that you would be ever mindful of the Wiccan Rede and do things for good and not for harm.

    Opening the Circle is another matter and I will address that on another page. Just remember that what you put up you must take down.


    • Clean your tub. Draw your bath and shut off the water. Take a container of salt. I prefer sea salt but use Morton's if that is what I have at hand. Pour some salt into your cupped palm. Put the salt into the water. Pour more salt into your palm; put into the water. Do this a third time. Three is a magical number and you will find it often in magical spells and rituals. It reminds us that the Goddess and the God both have three faces that we all know. The fourth face, the hidden face, may or may not be known.
      With your power hand (most often your power hand is the hand you write with), stir the water until the salt is dissolved and/or it feels right to you. Part of Wiccan training is about learning to trust yourself and your own inner voice. Once it feels right, then bless and consecrate the water.

      Keeping your power hand in the water, you might say something like this (Always remember that ad libbing is fine):

      "Water and Earth, Blessings on thee. I do cast out from thee any unpleasantries both from the spirit world and from my world. I do cast out any and all things that are not to my good and benefit. I do cast out any and all emotions that may be pulling me down and harming me. Be cast out that which is not in complete agreement with me! By the power of the Old Ones, as I will it, so mote it be."

      This is to purify and consecrate the water and it is also to remind you that your purpose is to be cleansed inside and out. You are getting rid of all those things that you collect in your daily life. You should enter Circle clean and in clean clothes as well if you don't circle skyclad.

      Stand next to the tub and face East. Or, if you so choose, face the direction that represents newness and dawn and beginnings to you. See the Lady and the Lord standing before you as you say:

      :Bless me, Lady and Lord, for I am thine own child {your magical name here}.

      Dip your {power hand} forefinger and middle finger into the water and anoint your third eye and left then right eyelids saying:
      :Blessed Be mine eyes, for they are Your eyes and help me see my path clearly.

      Dip your {power hand} forefinger and middle finger into the water and anoint your nose saying:
      :Blessed be mine nose, for it is Your nose and helps me breathe the essence that is the Sacred Whole.

      Dip your {power hand} forefinger and middle finger into the water and anoint your lips saying:
      :Blessed be mine lips, for these are Your lips and speak the true beauty of Your names

      Dip your {power hand} forefinger and middle finger into the water and anoint your heart and breasts saying:
      :Blessed Be mine breasts and mine heart for they are Yours and I will be faithful and loving in Thy name.

      Dip your {power hand} forefinger and middle finger into the water and anoint your belly and genitals (Men do not need to anoint belly area) saying:
      :Blessed be my womb/vagina/penis for they are Your life-giving organs and through them I can bring forth life.

      Dip your {power hand} forefinger and middle finger into the water and anoint your knees saying:
      :Blessed Be mine knees for they are Your knees that kneel in sacredness and joy.

      Dip your {power hand} forefinger and middle finger into the water and anoint your feet saying:
      :Blessed be mine feet for they are Your feet and they lead me to your Old Ways.

      Blessed Be Lady and Lord! I am ___________________ and I am Your own child come to you in Perfect Love and Perfect Trust.

      Now get into the tub and rub water all over yourself. Feel all your tensions and worries and fears slip into the water and dissolve away. Surround yourself with light and joy and enjoy!

      When you are done, let the water out and watch it drain. Towel yourself off and treat yourself to a bit of lotion. Remember that your body is Their sacred selves and carry that into Circle with you.

      May you be blessed in all your works. You are a child of the Gods.

      By my hand
      Arwen Nightstar
      November 12, 1998

      Note: This ritual is based on one given to me by my HPS during my training. I have greatly changed it and it resembles the original only in part.
      (C) All Rights Reserved, All use must receive written express permisson from Arwen Nightstar
    • Casting A Ritual Circle
      Circle Casting is one of the distinguishing features of Neopagan Witchcraft. All religions have procedures for establishing Sacred Space, casting a Circle is the Wiccan practice that fulfills that function. The Circle establishes the outer rim of the sacred space.
      The Circle sets the ritual space apart from the normal everyday space; it delineates the boundaries between our mundane practices and the realm of magical interaction. It is a declaration of parameters. It also helps to contain and focus the energies raised, it acts as a containment field for the energies that are summoned later. The casting of the circle is a magical act and should be sealed with a statement of success or some signal of completion.

      When the Circle is being cast the participants should be visualizing a sphere of energy forming around them, the details of this visualization vary. Once it is cast, no one should leave without making some concession to the barrier such as "cutting a door".

      This is a "Three worlds" Circle casting that I prefer because it speaks to the purpose of the Circle casting.


      "Now we make our sacred space
      By building a sphere of energy around us
      We cast this circle of light by calling upon
      the three worlds we move between
      We cast this circle thrice about:
      Once for the world of daylight,
      For the world of intellect and clarity.

      We cast this circle thrice about:
      Once for the world of moonlight,
      for the world of intuition and secrets.

      We cast this circle thrice and last:
      Once for the world out of time,
      Between all places,
      Where we meet to do our Work.

      The Circle is cast
      We stand between the worlds
      Let all who enter, enter in love
      Let all who leave, leave in peace."

      This is the circle casting I learned from my teacher Jill Price. This is sort of an accordion piece, each verse can be stretched or condensed to last all the way around the Circle. The descriptive section, after the colon and before the final line of each section, can be improvised upon for as long as necessary.


      "We cast this circle thrice about,
      once for the maiden,
      Innocent and free.
      We are the maiden when we:
      begin a new thing
      know the beauty of the ordinary
      marvel in the everyday
      are joyful in life
      we are the maiden and the maiden is us.
      We cast this circle thrice about,
      Once for the Mother,
      Nurturing and strong.
      We are the mother when we:
      are Generous and loving
      when we have the courage to lead
      stand up for what we believe in
      think of others first
      we are the mother and the mother is us.

      We cast this circle thrice about,
      Once for the Crone,
      Old and in wisdom strong.
      We are the crone when we:
      teach others
      seek inner truth
      comfort the weak
      we are the crone and is us.

      The Circle is cast.
      We stand between the worlds,
      Between all places,
      Where we meet to do our Work.
      Let all who enter, enter in love,
      Let all who leave, leave in peace."

      This is a Triple Goddess casting by my coven mate Michael wrote


      I cast this circle thrice about, once for the maiden.
      Carefree and innocent, she who knows the beauty of the ordinary.
      She who marvels in the everyday, and is joyful in life.
      I cast this circle thrice about, twice for the mother.
      Nurturing and strong, she who knows the pains that make life worth
      living. She who teaches us how to live, and takes away our hurt.

      I cast this circle thrice about, thrice for the crone.
      Aged and experienced, she who knows life's hard lessons.
      She who aids us with the hard won knowledge of the ages.

      The Circle is rarely perfectly round and in practice it's boundaries are somewhat flexible. You are within the Circle when you are in sensory contact with the group. As long as you are included in the interaction of the group you are within the Circle.

      Cutting a door is a symbolic opening of the inclusive sphere to allow an individual to come or go. A door can be cut with an athame or parted like a veil. I like to unzip a door like a tent flap. Always close the door behind you when you leave.


      • The origins of the magic circle lie in ancient history, forms of it were used in old Babylonian magic and many of the Ceremonial Magicians of the Middle Ages and Renaissance used them. In pre-Christian Europe most Pagan religious festivals took place in circles, normally outdoors under the sky and stars at night. There they celebrated the Earth’s fertility and worshiped the Sun, Moon and Deities. But with the rise of Christianity and the newly powerful church, most of these pagan rites were outlawed and the oncoming persecution of witches forced the practice underground. The pagans became secretive about their rites and practiced them outside only after dark, lit by fires and torches in far-out the way places. Others brought the practice indoors away from prying eyes. Stone circles such as Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments, sacred groves and revered springs across Europe, are remnants of those ancient days.



        There are two main types of magic circles used. Those formed by ceremonial magicians are designed to protect the magician from the forces that he or she raises. While those formed by witches and wiccans, are mainly used to create sacred space in which to meet and commune with the Goddess and God. With today’s more liberal view on religion, pagan rituals are once again being practiced in the open air, but these tend to be mass gatherings in specially selected areas. Most people, particularly those living in over populated towns and cities practice at home by transforming their living rooms or bedrooms into places of power and worship.



        The magic circle is an area of non-physical space created and constructed of personal power (See - "What is Magick"). It’s a magical environment in which the deities are welcomed and celebrated, and where rituals and magical workings take place. In a room filled with steel, plastic and the trappings of our technological age, as well as everyday living associations good and bad, the need for a private sacred space is envisaged. The magic circle defines the ritual working area and holds in our personal power while shutting out distracting energies. In essence it creates the proper working atmosphere for the ritual. Constructed of personal power which is raised, felt and visualized as streaming out from the body through the magic knife (athame), a sphere of energy is created which encompasses the entire working area, above, below and all around it. This energy sphere is what we consider to be the magic circle.



        The Physical Circle:


        To aid visualization (See - "What is Magic") when creating a magic circle, most witches mark out a physical circle on the ground. Wherever you decide to form a circle, be it in the living room, bedroom or some other place, clear sufficient space to mark out a rough circle on the floor. You can do this using a length of cord laid on the ground in a roughly circular shape, or lightly draw a circle using chalk. If you don’t want to soil your nice living room carpet, use an old sheet and draw your circle on it, it can then be rolled up after you have finished and re-used on the next occasion. Personally I use a collection of stones and pebbles to outline a circle; these can easily be picked up again once the ritual is over. Other things to use might be flowers (ideal for spring or summer time rites), or pine needles (winter rites). Some people use salt, earth or crystals to outline their circles. Use objects that spark your imagination and that are in tune with the ritual you are performing.



        Circles are usually nine feet in diameter but any size comfortable enough to work in is fine. Depending on your preference, the cardinal points can be marked by candles, Brown for North, Yellow for East, Red for South and Blue for West (See - "Candles"). The working tools (See - "Tools") can also be assigned to the four points, particularly if you don’t use an altar. Place the pentacle, a bowl of salt or earth to the North representing the elements of Earth. The censer containing smoldering incense is placed in the East to represent the elements of Air (Fresh flowers or stick incense can also be used). To the South a burning red candle often represents the element of Fire (A lighted oil lamp or a piece of lava rock would also suffice here). A cup or bowl of water is placed in the West representing the elements of Water, the last of the four elements.



        The Altar:


        Once your physical circle has been constructed, you will next need to construct an altar. The altar is normally positioned in the center, leaving sufficient room to walk or dance around it while remaining inside the circle. Most people use a table of whatever type they have available, but if you are adventurous and desire to make a purpose built one, it can be made from any substance, though wood is normally used. Many purpose built altars you can buy are made from Willow which is sacred to the Goddess. Depending on your preference it can be round or square. A round altar is symbolic of the Goddess and spirituality, while a square one represents the four elements.



        The altar doesn’t have to be a table at all, particularly if you are practicing outside; tables are bulky and cumbersome things to carry around. It can be nothing more than an area of ground covered with a cloth upon which to lay out you tools. A cardboard box covered with a cloth would also suffice, as would an old log or a large flat rock or stone. Look around and use your imagination, make use of whatever is available, the more natural and nature based your material the better. Generally the altar is place in the center of the circle facing North, its association with the elements of earth makes this the direction of power, ideal if during the rite you intend to do some magical workings. Some place the altar facing East where the Sun and Moon rises, ideal if all you intend to do is commune with the God and Goddess.



        While its not absolutely necessary, many witches dress their altars with an altar cloth. These can be quite ornate or as plain as you like, but they do enhance its general appearance. Altar cloths can be purpose bought if you don’t mind the expense, or you could make your own. A simple plain sheet or tablecloth folded to size and draped over or around the altar would suffice for this. If you like, you could even personalize it with runic signs and symbols. Remember also to consider the colour of your altar cloth, and its correspondences with your rite or workings (See - "Colours").



        The working tools can now be placed and arranged on the altar. The left side of the altar is normally dedicated to the Goddess and tools associated with her are placed here. These are generally: the cup, pentacle, bell, crystal or wand and the cauldron. It’s also nice if you have one, to place an image or statue of the Goddess here, but if you haven’t a green, silver or white candle can be substituted. Also if you have one, a broom can be placed against the left side of the altar. The right side of the altar is reserved for the God, and his tools of association. These are: the censer, athame (black handled knife) and bolline (white handled knife). Your Book of Shadows might also be placed here. If you intend to work magic in your circle, be sure to have all your necessary ingredients and equipment within it before you start (i.e. matches, candles, herbs and oils, pen and paper etc), these can be placed on or beneath the altar as you feel fit. Finally its a good idea to have some refreshments to hand for use during ritual as offerings , or to replace spent energy while working. Most rituals finish with a "Cake and Ale" ceremony or feast.



        The altar and the circle it stands in is your own personal construction, and there are no hard and fast rules as to how they should be constructed or arranged. Use you imagination and do as you feel appropriate for the rite or work you are conducting. If it pleases you, it will work for you to your own advantage and satisfaction. You are now ready to begin preparing the circle for use.
        • As with all other aspects of working magic and performing ritual, the process of casting a circle is highly individualistic. I cannot emphasize enough that there is no right or wrong way of doing things. As such, and in time, you will find there are many methods of casting a circle, and while one method may work for some, it may not work for others. You need to experiment and try different methods then improvise and do and use what works for you. By doing this you can then form your own method, unique and special to you.



          Circle casting is heavily reliant on your abilities to raise power and the use of visualization. So if you are new to magic and circle casting you may wish to take time out here to read my article “What Is Magic”, in which I have explained both techniques.



          Purification of Space:


          If you are practicing at home as most people do, be aware that “astral garbage”, pockets of negativity and other non-productive energies collect in our living spaces. For instance, you may have had an argument with your husband or spouse, or scolded one of the kids for doing something wrong, or even received an unexpected bill and cussed the sender. These are all perfectly normal everyday happenings but all produce negative energies the residual of which hangs around and remains. As these energies can be disruptive to our “Sacred Space”, we need to ritually cleanse the area being used prior to the start of our workings.



          Before lying out your physical circle and altar, clean the area physically with a brush, vacuum cleaner, or mop depending on your floor covering. Now we can clean up any negativity that might be present. There are several ways of doing this:



          (1) If you have one among your tools, use the magical broom to ritually sweep away the negative clutter. This in effect is a symbolic action; the bristles of the broom need not actually touch the floor. Sweep rhythmically while visualizing energy sparks or flames shooting out of the broom, blasting all the negativity away. Know and feel it is doing so. You could also set up a rhythmic chant while doing this, using words like: “Sweep, Sweep, Sweep this place. Cleanse and clean my Sacred Space”.



          (2) If you don’t have a magical broom, an alternative is to use a bell. Ringing a bell unleashes powerful energies, visualize its vibrations attacking and demolishing any negative energy. Start at the North point of the circle and work your way deosil (clockwise) through East, South and West and ring the bell at each point. Know and feel the vibrations cleansing the area. Any type of bell can be used, but if you can, choose one with a resonant tone.



          (3) Another method is to simply burn purifying incense such as frankincense, myrrh, sage, thyme or rosemary (See - "Incenses"). Fumigate the area by walking deosil around the circle and visualize the smoke dispelling any negative energy.



          Once the area has been ritually cleansed, mark out your physical circle and place your altar in the center, then lay out all your tools together with any other equipment necessary for your rite or magical work. Next you may wish to purify yourself with a ritual bath or shower, while at the same time preparing yourself mentally for the coming ritual. When you think about it, we are all bombarded each day with negative thoughts and images, from scenes of carnage and destruction on the T.V., and in the newspapers, to our own dark thoughts and negative reactions. Meditate for a while thinking positive things and purify your thoughts ready to begin your ritual.



          Once you have bathed and the time to begin approaches, you will need to consider how to dress for your ritual. Many witches particularly those of the Gardnerian path, prefer to work “skyclad” (naked), with the body in its most natural condition. But ritual nudity isn’t for everyone, if you don’t feel comfortable working nude, even in private, then don’t, there are other options. Many wear specialized dress such as robes and tabards. These can be quite ornate or as plain and simple as you like. They can be purpose bought if you don’t mind the expense, or make your own if you are handy with cotton and thread, you can even personalized it with you own runic signs and symbols. Use natural materials and fibers such as cotton, wool or silk and remember also to consider its colour correspondences (See - "Colours").



          If you don’t have specialized clothing to wear, simply wear some clean loose clothing of a neutral colour. It is normal to keep whatever you wear separate and wear it only for ritual and magic. The idea being that to slip into a garment used only for magic, lends a mystical atmosphere to your rituals by shifting your awareness to the coming proceeding and promoting ritual consciousness. Still, as long as you are happy and comfortable with what you are wearing (or not wearing) then that is fine, but you may wish to experiment and see what suits you best.



          One other thing to mention here is "Music". Music and dance since ancient times has been incorporated into religious ceremonies and ritual magic. Not only does music enhance the atmosphere of ritual, it can also have a powerful effect on stimulating our actions and producing magic. Shamans of old (modern ones still do), used rhythmic drumbeats to induce trance like states in which to produce magic. Many modern day witches incorporate and use of music before, during and after their rituals. Pre-selected or recorded music can be played before the ritual to start and aid meditation and set the mood. During the ritual the steady beat of a drum may be used to set the pace of a dance or rhythmic rhyme of a chant. After the ritual has finish, joyous or celebratory music can be played while relaxing. Today there’s are a wide variety of pre-recorded Wiccan and Pagan cassettes tapes available, many are well worth investigating and trying. Alternatively you could simply record appropriate pieces selected from classical, ethnic, folk or contemporary sources.



          The last and final thing to do is to make sure you will not be interrupted. Disconnect your telephone, close any open curtains and lock the doors if necessary. If you are working at home and have family, tell them you are not to be disturbed for sometime. Now you are ready to begin and cast your magic circle.
          • Enter your circle and light any altar candles you are using. If you are using quarter candles, start at the North point (or East if that’s your preferred direction) and light the four candles walking deosil (clockwise) around the circle. Return to the altar and light the incense. Before the start of any ritual, magical working or divinatory activity, a witch will first 'Ground and Center' to booster the self's resources by infusing 'Personal Power' with 'Earth Power' producing calm within the inner-self ready for the work ahead (see "What is Magick"). Now you are ready to begin.



            Stand in front of your altar or the center of your circle if you are not using one and face your preferred direction. Concentrate and build your personal power within you (see "What is Magick"). When it has reached a fine pitch (you’ll know when it has with practice), hold out your projective hand (right if right handed) palm down at waist height and point your fingers at the edge of the physical circle on the ground (you could also use the athame if you wish). Push out with your personal power and see and feel the energy flowing out from your fingertips (athame). Visualize it as a bright light (coloured if you wish) and slowly walk deosil around the circle. Now form it with your visualization into a swirling circling band of magical glowing light the exact width of your circle.



            When you can see the band of light swirling about you expand it with your visualization and stretch it over and around you in the form of a dome, it should encompass the whole ritual area. Now extend the energy down into the earth, see it forming into a complete sphere of pulsing glowing light as you stand at its center. Feel it solidifying into a living glowing reality all around you. Sense the edge of the circle and the difference in vibration within and without of it. You may even feel the temperature rise, as the air inside grows warm, charged with your energy and alive with power. When the circle seems complete and solid around you, cut off the flow of energy by turning the palm and clenching your fist pulling it back to your body.



            This then is your magical circle, your sacred space completed. Time now to recoup your energies before starting the next phase of the ritual. Do this with a bite to eat or a sip of wine or water, while savoring the atmosphere you have created. What you do next largely depends on your ritual or the magical work you intend to perform. Some start by consecrating the salt and water held on the altar and using them to seal the circle. Do this with the athame; touch the blade to the salt saying something like:



            “I consecrate and cleanse this salt that it be purified and fit to use in this my sacred circle. In the name of the Goddess and God, I consecrate this salt”.



            Visualize energy flowing out of the athame and blasting away any negativity from the salt. Next do the same with the water saying:



            “I consecrate and cleanse this water that it be purified and fit to use in this my sacred circle. In the name of the Goddess and God, I consecrate this water”.



            Take up the salt and starting at the North (salt is symbolic of earth and represents North), sprinkle it around the circle moving deosil. Visualize it purifying and sealing the circle against unwanted influences and negativity. As you are doing so you might say something like:



            “Here is the boundary of my circle where naught but love shall enter in, where naught but love shall escape from within. This I charge with the powers of earth.”



            Completing the circle return the salt to the altar and take up the Incense. Repeat the same process with all the other elements starting at each appropriate direction. Incense for air representing East, Red candle for fire representing South (care should be taken here that it doesn’t blow out as you walk around the circle), and Water representing West. Change the wording of the verse as you use each element.



            Next you may wish to invoke the rulers of the four quarters to protect and watch over your proceeding. There are various teaching regarding these rulers, some people link them as the “Spirits” of the elements, others see them as the “Old Ones” (anciently placed guardians or watchers of the four direction), still others think of them as the “Mighty Ones” (former humans who have climbed the incarnational ladder to perfection, thus allowing them to dwell with the Goddess and God). The Mighty Ones are mythologically linked to the four directions. Again here there are no hard and fast rules of which to use, so use what feels right for you.



            Below is a basic method of calling the quarters rulers using the wand, however depending on the work and the forces you intend to call, a more powerful method of opening and closing the quarters is by using the invoking and banishing pentagram for added protection (see The Pentagram).



            To call the rulers take up the wand in your receptive hand (left if your right handed). Stand at the North edge of the circle and hold the wand aloft saying something like:



            “Spirits of the North, Old Ones of the Earth. I call upon you to attend my circle. Guard it with your powers Mighty Ones!”



            Don’t just say the words; try to say them with meaning. Visualize the spirits arriving in a swirling glowing green mist, sense the earth’s energies cleansing and filling the north quarter of the circle with positive forces. Open yourself to them and invite them in, stretch out with your awareness, sense, feel, and know when they have arrived. When you can feel their presence, lower the wand and move to the East. Raise the wand again and say:



            “Old Ones of the East, Spirits of the Air. I call upon you to attend my circle. Guard it with your powers Mighty Ones!”



            Again don’t just say the words, believe in them and feel the spirits respond. See and sense them arriving on yellow wind blowing away any negative influences and filling the east quarter of the your circle with intellectual energy. When you can feel their presence, lower the wand and move to the South. Raise the wand aloft again and say:



            “Old Ones of the South, Spirits of Fire. I call upon you to attend my circle. Guard it with your powers Mighty Ones!”



            Visualize blazing orange flames of fire engulfing the whole area of the South quarter, burning, cleansing and protecting you from harmful forces. Finally, when you can feel their presence, lower the wand and move to the West. With the wand held aloft say:


            “Old Ones of the West, Spirits of Water. I call upon you to attend my circle. Guard it with your powers Mighty Ones!”



            See the spirits rushing in on waves of blue-green water sweeping away all doubts and negativity, filling the West quarter of the circle with the powers of life and regeneration. When you can feel their presence, replace the wand on the altar and stand still for a moment. Feel and sense the circle around you. Reach out to the spirits and welcome them, feel their presence and communicate with them. Know they are there. Feel the energies and visualize the circle glowing and growing with power. Your circle is now complete and ready for your ritual to begin.



            Cutting a Doorway:


            At times it may be necessary to leave the circle. Contrary to some teachings, pushing your hand into or walking through the magic sphere will not cause any undue damage. When you think about it being circular, if you stand at the very edge of the circle your head and feet will necessarily extend outside of it? At most walking through the magic sphere will give you a jolt of energy and dissipate its strength. Should this happen simply re-create it or strengthen it with renewed power.



            To prevent this from happening it’s a common practice to cut a doorway through which to walk. Do this by facing Northeast and using your athame. Pierce the wall of energy near the ground and cut and trace an archway large enough to walk through. Move anti-clockwise in line with the edge of the circle as you are cutting and visualize that part of the circles energy being withdrawn into the athame. Finish back at the starting point thus creating a hole or void through which you can walk. Withdraw the athame and you are free to leave and re-enter without breaking the rest of the circle.



            To close the doorway reverse the procedure. Point the athame at the lower Northeast corner of the archway and push out with your power. Visualize the energy you removed flowing out of the athame and retrace the archway by the moving clockwise. Feel the energy being replaced and converging with the rest of the circle. When you are happy the circle is complete again, cut off the energy flow and withdraw the athame. You can now continue with your rite or workings.



            Closing the Circle:


            Closing the circle is normally a reversal of the casting process with a few minor differences. Once the rite has finished and your magical work complete, thank the Goddess and God for their help if you have called them. Some may do this with a simple "Cake and Ale" ceremony, making offerings and toasts to the deities before they depart, some may prefer to do this after the circle has been closed, the choice of course is yours. Take up the wand and move to the North (or East if that’s were you started), and hold the wand aloft saying something like:



            “Farewell, Spirits of the North, Old Ones of the Earth. I thank you for your presence. Till the next time Mighty Ones, go in peace with power”.



            Repeat the same process for the other directions but this time moving “widdershins” (anti-clockwise) through West, South and East. Some people take offence at this believing that moving anti-clockwise within a circle creates negative energies. Because of this many witches now shun the practice even though it is based on orthodox teachings. Some however still use it for dispersing the circle. The choice is up to you, if you’re not happy to move widdershins, then move deosil as in the casting procedure. Remember to change the words of the verse at each direction.



            Replace the wand on the altar and return to the North (or East) position. Pierce the wall of your circle with your receptive hand (or the athame if that’s what you used to create it). Moving widdershins (or deosil) visualize the circles energy and power being sucked back into your body (or athame). Feel the circle dissolving and shrinking as you pull back its energy. As you are doing so, sense the outside world regaining its dominance over the area as you finish back in the North position. Your circle is no more.



            This brings an end to your use of power and energy for the time being, but while the power and energy raised during your rite or working may have been released towards its goal, residual traces of energy will still remain within the self. It is important to 'Ground and Center' yourself again and release the remaining energy back into the ground were it will safely dissipate.



            All that remains now is to extinguish the quarter candles and put away your tools. Save any remaining salt for future occasions and pour any excess water outside onto bare earth. Likewise, any cake and wine left over or offerings you have made to thank the Goddess and God, should be buried outside in the earth together with the incense ashes. Next you can dismantle the physical circle and take up whatever you used to form it, also clean up any salt or other substances you may have used and scattered about during you rite. Some people leave the altar standing to allow the Goddess and God candles, as well as any working candles to burn down and out in their own time, though you may wish to move it from the center of the area.
            • Mention magic to most people and they immediately start thinking about Wicked Witches, Wizards and Sorcerers conjuring up evil sounding spells and poisons from boiling bubbling cauldrons sat on blazing smoking fires. Others imagine comedians on stage with funny pointy hats and black and white wands. Still others think of Illusionists making people disappear then re-appear from boxes and other contrived stage props.

              Since time immemorial magic has been used in witchcraft, and many myths and evil associations have been attributed to its use. Here I shall concentrate on magic and how it is perceived by witches of today. Not everybody agrees and there are many theories on the subject, so this is my theory, based on my opinion and my experiences. At the end of the day you shall have to form your own.

              So what is magic really? (Or “magick” as those in the craft would term it). How, what, where and when should it be used? These are the questions I aim to answer here.

              First let us destroy the myths of wizards throwing around lightening bolts doing battle with evil sorcerers, and all other such nonsense’s. Magick is a force utilising power, wisdom and knowledge. It is both more and less powerful than the ignorant can suppose. Magick can only be used to change the changeable, for instance - it can be used to cure a sickness but not to replace a lost limb. Magick is not a power to be used in place of our other powers, meaning those of our physical, mental or emotional abilities. Nor is it a crutch for the weak or an ego-boost for the inadequate. Magick is an art and skill unto itself. It needs to be learned then trained to develop, and that takes time and patience.

              If we believe that everything and all originate from the same source, then the ability for using magick must be retained within us all. Magick then is a forgotten art passed down through aeons of reincarnations and it resides inside us all. Therefore magick is a skill that needs to be re-learned and trained if it's to be used well, effectively and wisely.

              In modern days magick is used not only in ritual ceremonies, but also on a daily bases during spiritual communication with the Goddess and God. It is used daily for healing purposes and perhaps more frequently for personal purposes like reducing negativity, protection and improving the self. It can also be used for many other purposes as determined by the individual while bearing in mind “The three fold law”.

              Written and compiled by George Knowles.

              • The Three-Fold Law is the belief and principle on which magick is used. This law relates to the use of power and energy, for when used, power is returned to the sender, three times the level it was sent out.

                Used in relation with the ethos, “Do what thy wilt, though it harm none” (as stated in the Wiccan Rede), witches take great care when preparing and casting spells that no harm should come to others because of it.

                The nature of this three-fold return can perhaps be better understood when considering the cause and effect principle of a spell. Let’s take an example – someone comes to you in distress with a problem, you help by sending out positive energy and the problem is successfully resolved. This automatically makes you feel good about yourself and influences your thoughts; thus your state of consciousness is altered. In turn your thoughts stir the emotions, which has a physical effect in the body by causing glandular secretions to enter into the blood stream. The resulting state of mind and body lifts your spirit, which is what makes you feel good. Thus with the act of a single good deed, you have been effected three times, in mind, body, and spirit. This then is your three-fold response to the return of positive energy. Now consider your response had you sent out negative energy or something went drastically wrong?



                The Law of Power
                1. The Power shall not be used to bring harm, to injure or to control others. But if the need arises, the Power shall be used to protect your life or the lives of others.
                2. The Power is used only as need dictates.

                3. The Power can be used for your own gain; as long as by doing so you harm none.

                4. It is unwise to accept money for the use of the Power, for it quickly controls its taker. Be not as those of other religions.

                5. Use not the Power for prideful gain, for such cheapens the mysteries of Wicca and Magick.

                6. Ever remember that the Power is a sacred gift of the Goddess and the God, and should never be misused or abused.

                7. And this is the Law of the Power.



                The Four Powers of the Magus
                The Four Powers of the Magus are the personal attributes traditionally necessary and required for the successful use and practice of magick. These are - To Know, To Dare, To Will, and To Be Silent. Without these four attributes combined, the individual will never be successful in magick.

                The reasoning is quite simple; none of the attributes mentioned are enough in themselves, as all four attributes must be present to balance each other out. For instance:

                To Know - Knowledge is no good, without the will and audacity to see magick done.

                To Dare – Audacity is no good, without the knowledge and will to see magick done.

                To Will – Will power is no good, without the knowledge and audacity to see magick done.

                To Be Silent – What good are the above, without the discretion to remain silent until the magick is done? To reveal your magick before it is done, dissipates it’s power and effectiveness.

                So, anyone aspiring to use magick, he/see needs a knowledge of what he/see is doing, the audacity to use it, the will power to control it, and the discretion to remain silent till the work is done.



                Sources:
                Encyclopedia of Wicca & Witchcraft - By Raven Grimassi

                An ABC of Witchcraft Past and Present - By Doreen Valiente

                Wicca, A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner - By Scott Cunningham
                • When planning magical workings, consideration needs to be given as to when the work needs to be performed for best effect. We need to ascertain the best time or day for when to perform it.

                  Days have their own magickal associations, which are similar to and connected with the other tables - Candles, Colour and Incense. Thus they create harmony while generating power, when all are working together. Days are associated with and influenced by the Sun and six of the Planets.

                  I do my best throughout this tribe to list the correspondence of each day with the planets, scents, stones, deity, etc... but in case something happens where I cannot post on the day, I am going to list the correspondences here, basically on my expierences and the expierences of Cunningham, Valiente, and other Witches and Wiccans. Please use all that I post as a guide. You can try them, but always use what works best for YOU!! That is why I suggest always keeping a journal (Book of mirrors) to record your Magick and what works and what does not.

                  Below is a list of the days and their corresponding associations. For other associations and correspondences:

                  Incense / Candles / Colours / Stones and Gems / Tools of a Witch / Elements

                  I will post one a day when I am finished posting how to cast a circle. I am posting a lot of different ways to cast a circle, and as usual, you can use it, and always use what works best for you!
                  • This is the maximum depth. Additional responses will not be threaded.
                    WITH ALL THAT SAID, HERE R CORRESPONDENCES IN BRIEF:

                    Sunday - Is associated with the Sun and the colours of - Yellow, Gold and Orange.

                    Sunday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Health, Success, Careers Goals, Ambition, Personnel Finances, Advancement, Drama, Fun, Authority, Figures, Law, Fairs, Crops, Totem Animals, Volunteer and Civic Services, Promotion, Men’s Mysteries, Children, Buying, Selling and Speculation. Also used for Physical Strength, Achievement, Healing Energy and Divination.

                    Monday - Is associated with the Moon and the colours of - White, Silver, Grey and Pearl.

                    Monday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Psychic Pursuits, Psychology, Dreams, Astral Travel, Imagination, Women's Mysteries, Reincarnation, Short Trips, Women, Children, Public, Domestic Concerns, Emotions, Fluids, Magick, Spirituality, Nursing, Full moon magic, Purity, Protection, Truth, Meditation, Peace, Sincerity, Justice, Warding off Doubts and Fears, Anything to do with Water and Bodies of Water, Antiques, Trip Planning, Household Activities, Initiation, Astrology, New-Age Pursuits, Archetypes, Totem Animals, Shape-shifting and Religious Experiences.

                    Tuesday - Is associated with Mars and the colours of - Red, Pink and Orange.

                    Tuesday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Passion, Partnerships, Courage, Swift Movement, Action, Energy, Strife, Aggression, Sex, Physical Energy, Sports, Muscular Activity, Guns, Tools, Metals, Cutting, Surgery, Police, Soldiers, Combat, Confrontation, Business, Buying and Selling Animals, Mechanical Things, Repairs, Gardening, Woodworking, Hunting and New Beginnings.

                    Wednesday - Is associated with Mercury and the colours of Purple, Magenta and Silver.

                    Wednesday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Wisdom, Healing, Communication, Intelligence, Memory, Education, Correspondence, Phone Calls, Computers, Messages, Students, Merchants, Editing, Writing, Advertising, Signing Contracts, Siblings, Neighbours, Kin, Accounting, Clarks, Critics, Music, Editors, Journalists, Visual Arts, Hiring Employees, Learning Languages, Placing Ads, Visiting Friends, Legal Appointments and Astrology.

                    Thursday - Is associated with Jupiter and the colours of - Blue and Metallic Colours.

                    Thursday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Business, Gambling, Logic, Social Matters, Political Power, Material Wealth, Publishing, Collage Education, Long Distance Travel, Foreign Interests, Religion, Philosophy, Forecasting, Broadcasting, Publicity, Expansion, Luck, Growth, Sports, Horses, The Law, Doctors, Guardians, Merchants, Psychologists, Charity, Correspondence Courses, Self-improvement, Researching, Reading and Studying.

                    Friday - Is associated with Venus and the colours of - Green, Pink and White.

                    Friday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Romantic Love, Friendship, Beauty, Soul-mates, Artistic Ability, Affection, Partners, Alliances, Grace, Luxury, Social Activity, Marriage, Decorating, Cosmetics, Gifts, Income, Gardening, Architects, Artists, Beauticians, Chiropractors, Dancers, Designers, Engineers, Entertainers, Fashion, Music, Painting, Poetry, Courtship, Dating, Household Improvements, Planning Parties, Shopping, Herbal Magick, Luck, Fertility, Physical Healing, Balance, Prosperity, Courage, Change, Material Things, Peace, Harmony, Relationships and Success.

                    Saturday - Is associated with Saturn and the colours of - Black, Grey, Red and White.

                    Saturday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Binding, Patience, Stability, Neutralization, Material Gain, Protection, Karma, Death, Manifestation, Structure’s, Reality, Laws of society, Limits, Obstacles, Tests, Handwork, Real Estate, Dentists, Bones, Teeth, Farm Workers, Sacrifice, Separation, Stalkers, Murderers, Criminals, Civil Servants, Justice, Math’s, Plumbing, Joint Money Matters, Wills, Debts, Financing, Real Estate, Discoveries, Transformation and Relations with Older People.
                    • As with most other religions, tools are used in witchcraft to aid and enhance ritual worship. Tools have no power in themselves, though they do have powerful symbolic significances. Some like the Wand and Athame (pronounced ath-ay-me) are used to invoke and direct whatever power we generate or pass through them.

                      While tools are not absolutely necessary to the practice of the craft, some tools are nice to have if only to focus our will and concentration. The basic tools to start with are the elemental tools or those tools which represent the four elements of life: The Pentacle for Earth, The Wand for Air, The Athame for Fire, and The Chalice for Water.

                      Tools needn’t be purposely bought or excessively expensive. Take a look around the household, many ordinary implements can be used or improvised as tools. You could even make your own and by doing so, a certain amount of personal power will be infused into the item, thus increasing its effectiveness. Other sources of tools are Car Boot Sales, Junk Shops and Antique Shops. With a little patience you may find tools cropping up in the most unusual places.

                      All tools as they are collected, should be cleansed of all negative energies and past use influences. Lets face it, you won’t know how or for what use they may have been used before you acquired them. To do this, clean the item physically and thoroughly while using visualisation. Then bury the item in the ground for a few days, thus allowing past associations to be dispersed and purified with earth’s energy.

                      Alternatively you could use the water method. Immerse the item in water, preferably natural water like the Sea, a River, or a Lake. If these are not available to you, used a bowl of water and add a few pinches of Sea Salt. Leave submerged for a couple of hours before removing and drying the item off. Obviously common sense must prevail when using these methods, as you wouldn’t want to ruin the item. Do whatever seems appropriate for each item. After the cleansing process, each tool needs to be consecrated, ready to use for magickal purposes. (More about this later).

                      Here I will post about :
                      Athame / Pentacle / Wand / Chalice / Censer / Broom / Bolline / Cauldron / Bell / Book of Mirrors
                      • Candles have long been used in association with magick and witchcraft, as indeed they have been adopted and used by many other religions for spiritual communication.

                        Candle magick is probably the oldest and simplest form of ritual magick still performed today. Ever since fire was discovered, the naked flame has been regarded as sacred. In ancient times they used to light touches to invoke the Goddess and Gods.

                        Today we symbolize those acts by utilizing candles. The naked flame remains the finest and easiest means of focusing in on power and energy.

                        The use of differently coloured candles symbolizes the nature of intent and ultimately the outcome of a particular spell. Coloured candles are therefore used to pinpoint our focus on a particular deity or planetary association. We need to understand the colour properties and other associations of candles to make magick work.

                        Below is a list of candles and their associations.

                        Black – Are used for Banishing evil or negativity as in uncrossing rituals, Crone Magic, Mourning a loss, Meditation, Feminine Divinity, Samhain. Also used in rituals to induce a deep meditational state. This candle attracts Saturn energy.

                        Light Blue - Is a spiritual colour and is helpful in devotional or inspirational meditations. It brings peace and tranquillity to the home and radiates Aquarius energy. Use in situations that need to be synthesized.

                        Royal Blue - Is the colour of Loyalty and is used to promote Laughter and Joviality. Use it to promote Jupiter energy and whenever an influence needs to be increased.

                        Blue – Is symbolic of the spirits of the West, and the elements of Water. It is used in rituals to obtain Wisdom, Peace, Healing, Tranquillity, Truth, Sleep, Prophetic Dreams, Friendship, Physical Protection and Hope.

                        Brown – Is symbolic of the spirits of the North, and the elements Earth. It is used for rituals involving Animal Magic and the Home in regards to Material Increase. It eliminates Indecisiveness and improves the Powers of Concentration, Study and Telepathy. Use it also for increasing Financial Success and for locating Lost Objects.

                        Gold – Fosters understanding and attracts the power of cosmic influences. Use it in rites intended to bring about fast luck or money. When communicating with Solar Deities and for honouring the Gods. This candle generates solar energy.

                        Grey – Is a neutral colour and is useful when pondering complex issues during meditation. In magic, this colour often sparks confusion. It also negates and/or neutralizes a negative influence.

                        Emerald Green - This candle is important in Venusian rituals. It attracts Love, Social Delights and Fertility.

                        Dark Green – Are used for Beauty, Employment, Fertility, Healing, Success, Good Luck, Prosperity, Heart Matters, Money and Masculine Divinity. Being the colour of Ambition, Greed and Jealousy, it can be used to counteract these influences in a ritual.

                        Orange – Are used for Creativity, Attraction, Stimulating Energy, Legal Matters, Success, New Home, Intelligence and Mental Clarity. It charges and recharges the intellect and combines with any other candles to stimulate their actions. Use for rituals stipulating Mercury energy, and sometimes-solar energy. Also used during Samhain.

                        Pink – Promotes Romance and Friendship, and is the standard colour used for rituals to draw affections. It is used for Love, Honour, Friendship and Fidelity. A colour of femininity, it brings lively conversation to the dinner table.

                        Purple – Are used for Psychic Ability, Wisdom, Spirituality, Success, Independence, Spiritual Growth, Power, Healing and the Feminine Divine. Ideal for rituals to secure Ambitions and Financial Rewards. Increases Neptune energy.

                        Red – Is symbolic of the spirits of the South, and the elements of Fire. It is used for Strength, Courage, Power, Passion, Health, Energy, Vitality, Love and Will Power. It increases magnetism in rituals and draws on Aries and Scorpio energy.

                        Silver – Is used to remove Negativity, encourage Stability and helps to develop Psychic abilities. Use for Protection, Honouring the Goddess, Telepathy and Clairvoyance. This candle attracts the influence of the Goddess.

                        White – Is a balance of all colours and is used for Meditation, Healing, Truth Seeking, Peace, Spiritual Strength and Enlightenment, Rituals involving "Lunar" energy, Purity, Protection, Happiness, Masculine Divinity, and may be substituted for any other colours.

                        Yellow – Is symbolic of the spirits of the East, and the elements of Air. It is used for Charms, Confidence, Attraction, Wisdom, Visions, Psychic Powers, Mental Powers, Activity, Creativity and Unity. Use it to bring the power of concentration and imagination to the success of a ritual. Also used in rituals where you need to gain someone's confidence or need to persuade someone. This candle generates solar energy.

                        Magenta - Is a combination of Red and Violet that oscillates on a high frequency. It energizes rituals where immediate action is needed, or high levels of power and spiritual healing are required.

                        Indigo - Is the colour of inertia. It is used to stop situations or people’s intentions. Use it in rituals that require deep meditation and rituals that require Saturn energy.



                        Books:
                        Candle Magic - By Phillip Cooper
                        Wicca, A guide for the Solitary Practitioner - By Scott Cunningham
                        Encyclopedia of Wicca & Witchcraft - By Raven Grimassi
                        Sarah Nunn - The Swamp Witch of Elven Coven.
                        • Colour plays a powerful role in ritual Witchcraft and Magick. Colours are carefully considered and assigned to all aspects of Spell making, Ritual magick and Festivals.

                          Colours have symbolic associations representing occult powers, and have their own energy frequencies that emanate specific influences. Careful consideration needs to be given to colour correspondences when used with Candles, Clothing, Symbols, Deities influences, Planetary influences, Zodiacal influences and Magickal Days. The use of colour is also inportant to our meditation and visualisation techniques.

                          Below is a list of colours and their associations.

                          Black - Is used to invoke the power of Saturn. Contrary to popular belief, black does not indicate evil. Far from it, black is the absence of colour. It is protective and symbolises the night, the universe and the lack of falsehood. Black is symbolic of the blackness of outer space and considered the ultimate source of divine energy.

                          Black is used for dealing with such matters as: Binding, Patience, Stability, Neutralization, Material Gain, Protection, Karma, Death, Manifestation, Structure’s, Reality, Laws of society, Limits, Obstacles, Tests, Handwork, Real Estate, Dentists, Bones, Teeth, Farm Workers, Sacrifice, Separation, Stalkers, Murderers, Criminals, Civil Servants, Justice, Math’s, Plumbing, Wills, Debts, Financing, Discoveries, Transformation and Relations with Older People.

                          Blue - Is used to induce the power of Jupiter. Blue is a Goddess colour and the colour most associated with the elements of water.

                          Blue is used for dealing with such matter as: Wealth, Joy, Opportunity, Abundance, Elevation, Tranquillising, Aligning, Business, Logic, Gambling, Social matters, Political power, Material wealth, Publishing, Collage education, Long distance travel, Foreign interests, Religion, Philosophy, Forecasting, Broadcasting, Publicity, Expansion, Luck, Growth, Sport, Horses, Legal matters, Doctors, Guardians, Merchants, Psychologists, Charity, Correspondence courses, Self-improvement, Research, Reading and Studying. Also used to attune to the Goddess in her Oceanic aspect.

                          Brown - Is the element of Earth and is symbolic of endurance and animal health. Brown it a good colour for Grounding, Solidifying and Strengthening. It is also used for matters dealing with Material Increases, Eliminating Indecisiveness, Improving Concentration, Study, Telepathy, Increasing Financial Success, Locating Lost Property and anything to do with Animal matters.

                          Green - Induces the power of Venus and is symbolic of the Earth’s elements. It is used to influence such matters as: Herbal Magick, Luck, Fertility, Physical Healing, Balance, Prosperity, Courage, Change, Material Things, Peace, Harmony, Relationships and Success. Also used for Romantic Love, Friendship, Beauty, Soul-mates, Artistic Ability, Affection, Partners, Alliances, Grace, Luxury, Social Activity, Marriage, Decorating, Cosmetics, Gifts, Income, Gardening, Architects, Artists, Beauticians, Chiropractors, Dancers, Designers, Engineers, Entertainers, Fashion, Music, Painting, Poetry, Courtship, Dating, Household Improvements, Planning Parties and Shopping.

                          Gold - Induces the power of the Sun and is used to attune with the God. It brings Self-realization and Inner-strength. Gold is used for such matters as: Health, Success, Careers, Goals, Ambition, Personnel Finances, Advancement, Drama, Fun, Authority, Figures, Law, Fairs, Crops, Totem Animals, Volunteer and Civic Services, Promotion, Men’s Mysteries, Children, Buying, Selling and Speculation. Also used for Physical Strength, Achievement, Healing Energy and Divination.

                          Pink - Induces the power of Venus but can be used to influence Mars. Pink represents: Love, Friendship and Harmony. Pink is also used for such matters as: Passion, Partnerships, Swift Movement, Action, Energy, Sex, Physical Energy, Sport, Muscular Activity, Cutting, Surgery, Buying and Selling Animals, Gardening, Woodworking and New Beginnings. Also Honour, Morality and the Emotions.

                          Purple - Induces the power of Mercury and influences Occult Forces, Hidden Aspects and Secret Dealings. Purple is used by those who work with pure divine power (Magicians, Priests and Priestesses) and those who wish to deepen their spiritual awareness of the God and Goddess. It is also used for such matters as: Wisdom, Healing, Communication, Intelligence, Memory, Education, Correspondences, Phone Calls, Computers, Messages, Students, Merchants, Editing, Writing, Advertising, Signing Contracts, Siblings, Neighbours, Kin, Accounting, Clerks, Critics, Music, Editors, Journalists, Visual Arts, Hiring Employee’s, Learning, Languages, Visiting Friends, Legal Appointments and Astrology. Also used for Spiritual Development, Intuition, Ambition, Progress, Occult Wisdom, Psychic Ability and the Third Eye (Divination).

                          Red - Induces the power of Mars and can be used to influence Saturn. It is used when attuning with the God in his fiery aspect. Red is the colour of Vitality, Power, Strength and Courage and is Invigorating, Motivating and Passionate. It is used to influence such matters as: Passion, Partnerships, Courage, Action, Physical Energy, Aggression, Sex, Physical Energy, Sport, Guns, Tools, Metals, Police, Soldiers, Combat, Confrontation, Business Deals, Buying and Selling, Mechanical Things, Repairs and Hunting.

                          Silver - Induces the power of the Moon and can be used with Mercury influences. It is used to attune to the Goddess while bringing the ability to respond to life’s energies. Also used for such matters as: Wisdom, Healing, Communication, Intelligence, Memory, Education, Correspondences, Phone Calls, Computers, Messages, Students, Merchants, Editing, Writing, Advertising, Signing Contracts, Siblings, Neighbours, Kin, Accounting, Clerks, Critics, Music, Editors, Journalists, Visual Arts, Hiring Employee’s, Learning, Languages, Visiting Friends, Legal Appointments and Astrology. Also used for Spiritual Development, Intuition, Ambition, Progress, Occult Wisdom, Psychic Ability and the Third Eye (Divination).

                          When attuned to the Goddess, silver is used for such matters as: Lunar Magick, Meditation, Psychic Development, Success, Balance, Warding off Negativity, Intuition, Dreams, and Astral Energy.

                          Yellow - Induces the power of the Sun and can be used to attune with the God. Also used to influence such matters as: Health, Success, Careers, Goals, Ambition, Personnel Finances, Advancement, Drama, Fun, Authority, Figures, Law, Fairs, Crops, Totem Animals, Volunteer and Civic Services, Promotion, Men’s Mysteries, Children, Buying, Selling and Speculation. Also used for Physical Strength, Achievement and Healing Energy.

                          Yellow is also representative of the Elements of Air, and as such is used for such matters as: Divination, Clairvoyance, Mental Alertness, Intellectual Growth, Prosperity, Harmony, Energizing and Creativity.

                          White - Induces the power of the Moon and is used to attune with the Goddess. Can also be used with Venus and Saturn. Pure dazzling white light can be called upon to bring about: Realisation, Intention, Insight and power itself. It is also used to influence: Psychic Pursuits, Psychology, Dreams, Astral Travel, Imagination, Women’s Mysteries, Re-incarnation, Short Trip’s, Spirituality, Full moon magic, Purity, Protection, Truth, Meditation, Peace, Sincerity, Justice, Warding off Doubts and Fears.

                          Orange - Induces the power of Mercury and is sometimes used for solar energy. Representative of the God, it can be used and combined with other candles to simulate their actions. Also used to influence such matters as: Health, Strength, Luck, Vitality, Business Goals, Justice, Success, Ambition, Personal Finances, Buying, Selling, Speculating and Authority Figures.

                          Violet - Induces the power of Jupiter. Can be use to influence such matters as: Intuition, Self-improvement, Wealth, Joy, Opportunity, Abundance, Elevation, Business, Logic, Gambling, Social matters, Political power, Material wealth, Publishing, Collage education, Foreign interests, Religion, Philosophy, Forecasting, Broadcasting, Publicity, Expansion, Luck, Growth, Sport, Horses, Legal matters, Doctors, Guardians, Merchants, Psychologists, Charity, Correspondence courses, Research, Reading and Studying.

                          Indigo - Induces the power of Saturn. Indigo is the colour of inertia and is used to stop situations or people. Use in rituals that require a deep meditational state. It can also be used to influence such matters as: Binding, Patience, Stability, Neutralization, Material Gain, Protection, Karma, Death, Manifestation, Structure’s, Reality, Laws of society, Limits, Obstacles, Tests, Handwork, Real Estate, Sacrifice, Separation, Stalkers, Murderers, Criminals, Civil Servants, Justice, Math’s, Wills, Debts, Financing, Discoveries, Transformation, Relations with Older People and for Warding off slander.

                          Lavender - Induces the power of Mercury to influence Occult Forces, Spiritual Development, Psychic Growth and Divination. Also used for such matters as: Wisdom, Healing, Communication, Intelligence, Memory, Education, Correspondences, Phone Calls, Computers, Messages, Students, Merchants, Editing, Writing, Advertising, Signing Contracts, Intuition, Ambition, Progress and Occult Wisdom.
            • EAST

              Mighty Dragon, Guardian of the realms of the East. Your tongue is a sharp sword, cutting with the knowledge of the arcane. Your spirit flows as graceful as a swift in flight. Purify us with truth. Blessed Be.

              SOUTH

              Mighty Dragon, Guardian of the realms of the South, your breath is aflame with the fires of inspiration and passion. Your spirit is searing and fervent. Purify us with Love. Blessed Be.

              WEST

              Mighty Dragon, Guardian of the realms of the West, your coils are the cleansing healing waves that nurture the soul. Your spirit lunges, leaps and splashes like a Talbot at play. Purify us with pulsing tides. Blessed Be.

              NORTH

              Mighty Dragon, Guardian of the realms of the North, your talons run like roots into the earth, giving you infinite strength. Your spirit is substantial, hard and pure like a clear crystal. Purify us with persistent wisdom. Blessed Be

              Each of these Dragons has a secret name that they are also invoked with. A suggestion is that anyone using these invocations meditate to find an appropriate name for each Guardian and use it along with or instead of the words "Mighty Dragon".

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