The word "robot" was first used by Czech writer Karel Capek for his 1920 play, R.U.R.: Rossum's Universal Robots, in which artificial workers eventually overthrow their creators. But contrary to popular opinion, Karl Capek didn't invent the word "robot". He wanted to call the workers "labori" but his brother, cubist painter and writer Josef Capek, suggested they be called "robots". The Czech word "robota" means "forced work or labour".
Source of quote www.sensation.org.uk/educati...ding.doc
Unsu...12/06<< The word "robot" was first used by Czech writer Karel Capek for his 1920 play, R.U.R.: Rossum's Universal Robots, in which artificial workers eventually overthrow their creators. >>
Hey, I knew that one! Well, I knew the Czech 1920 bit..
<< But contrary to popular opinion, Karl Capek didn't invent the word "robot". He wanted to call the workers "labori" but his brother, cubist painter and writer Josef Capek, suggested they be called "robots". The Czech word "robota" means "forced work or labour". >>
That's interesting. The word "rabota" (работа) simply means "work" in Russian (and not the forced variety).
• The first robot to appear in a film was called Maria in the 1926 silent movie, Metropolis. It's about a mechanised society in which an evil inventor creates a robot from a charming human woman. Maria has often been likened to Star Wars' C-3PO!
• In 400 BC, philosopher and mathematician Archytas of Tarentum built a wooden dove that could flap its wings and fly.
• Researcher Grey Walter is said to have invented the first crude robots in the 1940s, but inventor Nikola Tesla built the first radio-controlled vehicles even earlier in the 1890s.
• Joe Engelberger developed the original industrial modern robots, known as the Unimates, in the 1950s. He was the first person to market robots and eventually became known as the "father of robotics".
• Perhaps one of the first true robots was an experimental model called SHAKEY, designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute in the late 1960s. It was able to arrange blocks into stacks using a television camera as a visual sensor and a small computer for processing.
• A robot shaped like a human being is called an android - and in the realms of science fiction, has an intellect that is far superior to humans. Famous science fiction androids include C-3PO from Star Wars, Data from Star Trek: The Next Generation, Marvin the Paranoid Android from Douglas Adams' novel, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Bishop from Aliens, Kryten from Red Dwarf and Rachel Tyrell from Blade Runner (who is a gynoid, the female equivalent of an android).
• Cyborgs are very different to androids. They are biological beings that have been greatly modified mechanically; there is usually very little left of the body. Famous cyborgs include Robocop and the Borg Collective from Star Trek.
11/13Three Laws of Robotics:
* Law Zero:
A robot may not injure humanity, or, though inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
* Law One:
A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law.
* Law Two:
A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would confict with a higher order law.
* Law Three:
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.
In science fiction, the Three Laws of Robotics are a set of three rules written by Isaac Asimov, which almost all positronic robots appearing in his fiction must obey. Introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround", although foreshadowed in a few earlier stories, the Laws state the following:
A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this.
12/14And the hits keep on coming...
"Humans, Levy writes, are hard-wired to impute emotions onto anything with which we’re in intimate contact, to feel love for objects both animate and inanimate. And robots, he argues, might turn out to be even more lovable than some humans. By 2025 “at the latest,” he predicts, “artificial-emotion technologies” will allow robots to be more emotionally available than the typical American human male."
Hmmm. And his name it shall be: BOB.
04/07'Robofish' swims into UK aquarium
They sense nearby objects and swim in a different direction
An unusual kind of breed has been introduced to visitors at the London Aquarium - a robofish!
The fish-bot is based on a common carp, and will swim around a specially designed tank, dodging past objects guided by special sensors on its body.
Cyber-fish have been in development for 10 years, but creators say the latest model is the best ever.
Experts hope one day the robots will be used for searching the seabed, detecting oil leaks or even spying.
The fish are about 50cm long, 15cm high and 12cm wide and are covered in light-reflective scales to look as realistic as possible.
Designers say it has the acceleration of a pike and the navigation skills of an eel. It is covered in tiny sensors which warn the machine when it is swimming too close to something.
It can swim at a maximum speed of 50cm a second, but can be slowed down to preserve battery power if need be.
REAL FISH COMPANIONS..
The three robots will live in the tank with real fish and will be on display in the London Aquarium.
In July 2003 a shark model called Roboshark 2 was put into a tank with fish at the National Marine Aquarium in Plymouth.
More info www.rae.org/robofish.html
"We have embedded sensors on board—so, unlike the previous fishes that have remote controls, these are fully autonomous and artificial-intelligence based," said lead researcher Professor Huosheng Hu.
Over the past 10 years, scientists have been developing robotic fish with movements that are similar to those of real fish. The robotic fish at the London Aquarium has been in development for the past three years. It marks the first time that a robotic fish is able to operate on its own (without outside controls). Researchers have high hopes for the future of the robotic fish.
“We hope that eventually the fish will be able to swim in real oceans and rivers and perform real-world tasks, such as detecting leaks in oil pipelines, detecting mines, or improving the performance of underwater vehicles,” said Paul Cardy of Essex University.
As for the real fish in the aquarium, they don’t seem to notice anything “fishy” about their robotic companions.
05/03Latest and greatest: Robot to conduct symphony orchestra!
"ASIMO, Honda’s amazing 51-inch tall humanoid robot, is preparing to conduct the Detroit Symphony Orchestra in a performance of 'Impossible Dream.' Along with renowned cellist Yo-Yo Ma, the mechanical marvel will open a special concert performance for young people in Detroit on May 13.
According to Honda, the robot will demonstrate its capabilities to hundreds of Detroit-area school children prior to a specially arranged master class in which a select group of music students will receive personal instruction from Ma. Honda expects ASIMO — whose name stands for 'Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility' - to eventually be put to work assisting the elderly and disabled in their homes."
05/18"Calgary doctors have made surgical history, using a robot to remove a brain tumour from a 21-year-old woman.
Doctors used remote controls and an imaging screen, similar to a video game, to guide the two-armed robot through Paige Nickason's brain during the nine-hour surgery Monday.
Surgical instruments acting as the hands of the robot -called NeuroArm - provided surgeons with the tools needed to successfully remove the egg-shaped tumour.
This is the first time a robot has performed surgery of this kind, but it will not be the last."
Do you recognize this metal man? Elektro was one of the world's first robots, seen by 3.7 million people at the 1939 World's Fair. The curious lined up for hours to watch a performance in which he walked, talked, and smoked cigarettes. "Elektro was the marvel of his age," says Andy Masich, president of the Heinz History Center in Pittsburgh, which just unveiled a replica of the robot as part of its permanent collection.
Elektro was originally built by Westinghouse, then the world leader in robotics thanks to its Televox unit which—with a twist on telephone technology—could convert a person's voice into electronic pulses. By speaking into a telephone handset, it was possible to trigger any of Elektro's 12 motors, thereby controlling him. A six-syllable command (Elektro, please come here) prompted him to walk; one syllable (stop!), and he halted. Elektro's speech drew from a small repertoire of sayings recorded on 78-rpm records. Still, to dazzled audiences Elektro appeared to possess near-human communication skills.
Following the fair, Elektro hit the road to promote Westinghouse dishwashers and fridges. The company envisioned Elektro as the ultimate appliance, a domestic helper. "If you treat me right, I will be your slave" was one of his canned 78-rpm messages. But the clumsy giant robot never made his way into the home. Fact is, at seven feet tall, Elektro was simply too unwieldy for most houses, let alone household chores, says Jeffrey Trinkle, a roboticist at Rensellaer Polytechnic Institute. "Smoking was a great party trick, but practical robotics [like factory arms in manufacturing plants] carried the day.
After World War II, Elektro entered a period of decline. He did a stint promoting a California amusement park and appeared in the 1960 B-movie Sex Kittens Go to College opposite Mamie Van Doren. Then it was off to a Westinghouse plant in Mansfield, Ohio, where his head was removed and given to a company engineer as a retirement gift.
What is left of the original—the partly functioning head and body—now resides at the Mansfield Memorial Museum. "He's a piece of history," says Scott Schaut, the museum's curator. "He's not going anywhere
"If we were paranoid about the inevitable robot uprising (and we are) we'd be keeping an eye out for examples of them trying to gain our trust by doing things like putting on innocent-looking song and dance routines.
This is why -- when the humanoid bot HRP-4C took to the stage at a recent event in Tokyo -- we were busy calculating what firepower we needed to take her out, while everyone else was clapping along.
The last time we heard about the £110,000 HRP-4C, now dubbed Diva-bot, she was taking to the catwalk, though her clunky movements were still more C-3PO than Kate Moss.
But now robotics experts from Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology say they've created software which allows anyone (and not just those with a PhD from MIT) to program her movements.
To make their point they had her don a yellow dress and perform a song and dance at the Digital Contents EXPO, with all of her moves and jumps programmed using the click of a mouse.
The 1.58m tall robot, which also synthesises a singing voice, may be much improved, but she still has a long way to go before she gives a human performance... but then again so do many contestants on the X Factor
Read more: www.asylum.co.uk/2010/10/1...12lyEcEbu"
Reportedly designed to look like an average Japanese woman between the ages of 19 and 29, HRP-4C has 30 motors in her body that allow her to walk and move her arms and 8 facial motors for blinking, smiling, expressing emotions akin to anger and surprise--and, apparently, working it like a pop star
Read more: news.cnet.com/8301-17938_...xzz12lyURpp2
Watch on youtube
Here's a revisit to a link posted earlier in this thread:
Not all NASA robots drive around poking at rocks. This android will one day work alongside people on space stations. Robonaut is the same size and shape as a person in a space suit, so it can handle tasks typically performed by humans - its hands are even better articulated than an astronaut's gloved digits. The fact that it looks like Boba Fett? Lucky coincidence.”
What the wikiverse has to say:
“Robonaut is a humanoid robotic development project conducted by the Dextrous Robotics Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Robonaut differs from other current space-faring robots in that, while most current space robotic systems (such as robotic arms, cranes and exploration rovers) are designed to move large objects, Robonaut's tasks require more dexterity.
The core idea behind the Robonaut series is to have a humanoid machine work alongside astronauts. Its form factor and dexterity are designed such that Robonaut can use space tools and work in similar environments suited to astronauts.
The latest Robonaut version, R2, the first US-built robot on the ISS, delivered by STS-133 in Feb 2011, is a robotic torso designed to assist with crew EVA's and can hold tools used by the crew. However, Robonaut 2 does not have adequate protection needed to exist
outside the space station and enhancements and modifications would be required to allow it to move around the station's interior. NASA states "Robonauts are essential to NASA's future as we go beyond low earth orbit", and R2 will provide performance data about how a robot may work side-by-side with astronauts.”
Some recent gleanings that might move Robonaut up on the top 50 list and possibly add R2 to the list:
Mission to the International Space Station:
“On February 24th 2011, NASA launched the first human-like robot to space to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors under a cooperative agreement to develop a robotic assistant that can work alongside humans, whether they are astronauts in space or workers at GM manufacturing plants on Earth.
The 300-pound R2 consists of a head and a torso with two arms and two hands. R2 will launch on space shuttle Discovery as part of the STS-133 mission planned for February 24th. Once aboard the station, engineers will monitor how the robot operates in weightlessness. Throughout its first decade in orbit, the space station has served as a test bed for human and robotic teamwork for construction, maintenance and science.”
Robonaut 2 Shakes Hands With Station Commander:
“Robonaut 2 completed its initial checkouts on board the International Space Station Wednesday, February 15, 2012 and went on to make history with the first human/robotic handshake to be performed in space. The humanoid robot then provided a message sent down in sign language. ‘Hello World’, the robot signed in American sign language, repeating the first tweet sent from its Twitter account, @AstroRobonaut, which also happens to be a traditional programming phrase.”
How Robonauts Work:
“It's hard to imagine a more dramatic undertaking than space travel, in which brave souls seal themselves in amazing vehicles and are launched by controlled explosions into an environment hostile to all known life -- all in the name of science and human daring.
Landing a spaceship on the moon wouldn't have been the same without astronauts. Through their commentary, people on Earth watching the grainy black-and-white pictures of the lunar landscape shared a connection to the eternal and to the extraterrestrial. Their journey endowed us with a common experience greater than anything Hollywood could create, because it was real.
Space travel takes its toll on astronauts because the human body is not suited to the harsh conditions governing the realms beyond our atmosphere. Inside a capsule or shuttle, space travelers must exercise regularly to stave off the bone density loss and muscle atrophy caused by prolonged periods spent in microgravity. The crew compartments must be pressurized with the right mix of breathable gases and water vapor, and systems must circulate and revitalize those gases to keep the air breathable. Temperature must be carefully regulated as well, to say nothing of systems to supply food and water and dispose of waste.”
Robot Dog Soccer:
“Aussie robot dogs are world champs”
“AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" or "partner" in Japanese: aibō (相棒?)) was one of several types of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony. There have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999 although AIBO was discontinued in 2006.”
“The World Cup isn't the only global soccer tournament raging in Germany. In the northern town of Bremen, the soccer players have four feet instead of two, and lines of code trump fancy footwork. Welcome to the world of RoboCup, where teams of robot dogs seek their own glory on a modified, wireless-enabled soccer pitch.”
10/18A robot jockey is commonly used on camels in camel racing as a replacement for human jockeys. Developed since 2004, the robotic jockeys are slowly phasing out the use of human jockeys, which in the case of camel racing in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, and Qatar, often employs small children who reportedly suffer repeated systemic human rights abuses. In response to international condemnation of such abuses, the nations of Qatar and the UAE have banned the use of human jockeys in favor of robots
Who knew ?